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The surface force interactions between individual 8 μm diameter spheres and atomically flat substrates have been investigated using atomic force techniques. The lift-off force of glass, polystyrene,… (More)
A technique has been developed that allows a real-time measurement of the lift-off force required to remove a scanning force microscope tip from a substrate. Both topography and adhesion maps are… (More)
The surface force interactions between a single micrometer-size polystyrene sphere and a p-type silicon substrate were investigated using atomic force microscope techniques. The force of removal and… (More)
The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) has become a powerful apparatus for performing real-time, quantitative force measurements between materials. Recently the AFM has been used to measure adhesive… (More)
AIMS The purpose of this study was: (i) to record dynamic changes in the area of atrial septal defects (ASD) during a cardiac cycle, and (ii) to investigate factors which influence ASD dynamics.… (More)
The force needed to remove micrometer-size polystyrene particles from elastomeric substrates having Young's moduli of 3.8 and 320 MPa was measured using atomic force techniques. It was found that the… (More)