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The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System: a summary
TLDR
The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System is both a conceptual and practical advance over its 2007 predecessor and is hoped that it will facilitate clinical, experimental and epidemiological studies that will lead to improvements in the lives of patients with brain tumors.
Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor underlying responsiveness of non-small-cell lung cancer to gefitinib.
TLDR
A subgroup of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer have specific mutations in the EGFR gene which correlate with clinical responsiveness to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib, and these mutations lead to increased growth factor signaling and confer susceptibility to the inhibitor.
WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system
TLDR
The current edition of the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System will serve as an indispensable textbook for all of those involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with tumors of the CNS, and will make a valuable addition to libraries in pathology, radiology, oncology, and neurosurgery departments.
The 2007 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System
The fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumours of the central nervous system, published in 2007, lists several new entities, including angiocentric glioma,
Malignant astrocytic glioma: genetics, biology, and paths to treatment.
TLDR
The recent confluence of advances in stem cell biology, cell signaling, genome and computational science and genetic model systems have revolutionized understanding of the mechanisms underlying the genetics, biology and clinical behavior of glioblastoma.
Single-cell RNA-seq highlights intratumoral heterogeneity in primary glioblastoma
TLDR
The genome sequence of single cells isolated from brain glioblastomas was examined, which revealed shared chromosomal changes but also extensive transcription variation, including genes related to signaling, which represent potential therapeutic targets.
Prediction of central nervous system embryonal tumour outcome based on gene expression
TLDR
It is demonstrated that medulloblastomas are molecularly distinct from other brain tumours including primitive neuroectodermal tumours, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RTs) and malignant gliomas, and it is shown that the clinical outcome of children with medullOBlastomas is highly predictable on the basis of the gene expression profiles of their tumours at diagnosis.
Human Keratinocytes That Express hTERT and Also Bypass a p16INK4a-Enforced Mechanism That Limits Life Span Become Immortal yet Retain Normal Growth and Differentiation Characteristics
TLDR
Keratinocyte replicative potential is limited by a p16INK4a-dependent mechanism, the activation of which can occur independent of telomere length, and abrogation of this mechanism together with telomerase expression immortalizes keratinocytes without affecting other major growth control or differentiation systems.
The WHO Classification of Tumors of the Nervous System
The new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of nervous system tumors, published in 2000, emerged from a 1999 international consensus conference of neuropathologists. New entities include
Specific genetic predictors of chemotherapeutic response and survival in patients with anaplastic oligodendrogliomas.
TLDR
Allelic loss (or loss of heterozygosity) of chromosome 1p is a statistically significant predictor of chemosensitivity, and combined loss involving chromosomes 1p and 19q is statistically significantly associated with both chemos sensitivity and longer recurrence-free survival after chemotherapy.
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