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Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners
Kinematic and kinetic analyses show that even on hard surfaces, barefoot runners who fore-foot strike generate smaller collision forces than shod rear-foot strikers, and this difference results primarily from a more plantarflexed foot at landing and more ankle compliance during impact, decreasing the effective mass of the body that collides with the ground.
Endurance running and the evolution of Homo
Judged by several criteria, humans perform remarkably well at endurance running, thanks to a diverse array of features, many of which leave traces in the skeleton.
Foot strike and injury rates in endurance runners: a retrospective study.
- Adam I. Daoud, G. Geissler, Frank Wang, Jason Saretsky, Y. Daoud, D. Lieberman
- MedicineMedicine and science in sports and exercise
- 1 July 2012
Competitive cross-country runners on a college team incur high injury rates, but runners who habitually rearfoot strike have significantly higher rates of repetitive stress injury than those who mostly forefoot strike.
The aging of Wolff's "law": ontogeny and responses to mechanical loading in cortical bone.
Experimental and comparative evidence suggests that cortical bone is primarily responsive to strain prior to sexual maturity, both in terms of the rate of new bone growth (modeling) as well as rates of turnover (Haversian remodeling).
The primate cranial base: ontogeny, function, and integration.
Interspecific, experimental, and ontogenetic evidence indicates that the cranial base plays a key role in craniofacial growth, helping to integrate, spatially and functionally, different patterns of growth in various adjoining regions of the skull such as components of the brain, the eyes, the nasal cavity, the oral cavity, and the pharynx.
What We Can Learn About Running from Barefoot Running: An Evolutionary Medical Perspective
- D. Lieberman
- PsychologyExercise and sport sciences reviews
- 1 April 2012
A barefoot running style that minimizes impact peaks and provides increased proprioception and foot strength, is hypothesized to help avoid injury, regardless of whether one is wearing shoes.
Effects of footwear and strike type on running economy.
Minimally shodrunners are modestly but significantly more economical than traditionally shod runners regardless of strike type, after controlling for shoe mass and stride frequency.
Basicranial influence on overall cranial shape.
This study examines the extent to which the major dimensions of the cranial base (maximum length, maximum breadth, and flexion) interact with brain volume to influence major proportions of the neurocranium and face and highlights how integration between the Cranial base and the brain may help to account for the developmental basis of some morphological variations such as occipital bunning.
Predicting long bone loading from cross-sectional geometry.
Interindividual comparisons of cross-sectional properties calculated from centroidal axes may be useful in terms of pattern, but are subject to high errors in Terms of absolute values.