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Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds
TLDR
A genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships and identifies the first divergence in Neoaves, two groups the authors named Passerea and Columbea.
Rates of Evolution in Ancient DNA from Adélie Penguins
TLDR
It is demonstrated DNA sequence evolution through time and the rate of evolution of the hypervariable region I using a Markov chain Monte Carlo integration and a least-squares regression analysis are approximately two to seven times higher than previous indirect phylogenetic estimates.
An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia
TLDR
It is shown that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago, which is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25, thousands of years ago.
Molecular evolution at subzero temperatures: mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of fishes from Antarctica (suborder Notothenioidei), and the evolution of antifreeze glycopeptides.
TLDR
The age of the radiation of notothenioid fishes appears to be too low to agree with this date of origin and might instead suggest a younger age (10-15 Mya), and the low level of detected mtDNA variation would agree with the traditional old-age estimate if an extremely slow rate of mtDNA evolution is postulated for this group.
Genomic analyses inform on migration events during the peopling of Eurasia
TLDR
A genetic signature in present-day Papuans that suggests that at least 2% of their genome originates from an early and largely extinct expansion of anatomically modern humans (AMHs) out of Africa earlier than 75,000 years ago is found.
High mitogenomic evolutionary rates and time dependency.
A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia
TLDR
A population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama–Nyungan languages is inferred.
Genetic drift outweighs balancing selection in shaping post‐bottleneck major histocompatibility complex variation in New Zealand robins (Petroicidae)
TLDR
Comparison of MHC variation with minisatellite DNA variation indicates that genetic drift outweighs balancing selection in determining MHC diversity in the bottlenecked populations, however, balancing selection appears to influence MHC Diversity over evolutionary timescales, and the effects of gene conversion are evident.
Mitochondrial phylogeny of trematomid fishes (Nototheniidae, Perciformes) and the evolution of Antarctic fish.
TLDR
The subfamily of fishes Trematominae is endemic to the subzero waters of antarctica and is part of the longer notothenioid radiation and could have speciated during the period of deglaciation in Antarctica 2.5-4.8 million years ago, which might have provided a stimulus for specification.
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