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Best Practices for Justifying Fossil Calibrations
TLDR
A specimen-based protocol for selecting and documenting relevant fossils is presented and future directions for evaluating and utilizing phylogenetic and temporal data from the fossil record are discussed, to establish the best practices for justifying fossils used for the temporal calibration of molecular phylogenies. Expand
Paleogene equatorial penguins challenge the proposed relationship between biogeography, diversity, and Cenozoic climate change
TLDR
The most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Sphenisciformes to date, combining morphological and molecular data, places the new species outside the extant penguin radiation (crown clade: Speniscidae) and supports two separate dispersals to equatorial regions during greenhouse earth conditions. Expand
Fossil Evidence for Evolution of the Shape and Color of Penguin Feathers
TLDR
The fossil reveals that key feathering features, including undifferentiated primary wing feathers and broad body contour feather shafts, evolved early in the penguin lineage, and analyses of fossilized color-imparting melanosomes reveal that their dimensions were similar to those of non-penguin avian taxa and that the feathering may have been predominantly gray-brown. Expand
New Fossil Penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes) from the Oligocene of New Zealand Reveal the Skeletal Plan of Stem Penguins
TLDR
New materials described here, along with re-study of previously described specimens, resolve several long-standing phylogenetic, biogeographic, and taxonomic issues stemming from the inadequate comparative material of several of the first-named fossil penguin species. Expand
The Basal Penguin (Aves: Sphenisciformes) Perudyptes devriesi and a Phylogenetic Evaluation of the Penguin Fossil Record
TLDR
These two species, known from relatively complete partial skeletons, are the oldest crown clade penguin fossils and represent well-corroborated temporal calibration points for the Spheniscus-Eudyptula divergence and Megadyptes-EUDyptes divergence, respectively. Expand
Erketu Ellisoni, a Long-necked Sauropod from Bor Guvé (Dornogov Aimag, Mongolia)
TLDR
Phylogenetic analysis indicates Erketu is a member of the Somphospondyli and may belong to a more exclusive clade therein, andComputed tomography imaging reveals the vertebrae were extensively invaded with pneumatic camellae. Expand
Bayesian Total-Evidence Dating Reveals the Recent Crown Radiation of Penguins
TLDR
The FBD model and a model of morphological trait evolution are incorporated into a Bayesian total‐evidence approach to dating species phylogenies and it is shown that including stem‐fossil diversity can greatly improve the estimates of the divergence times of crown taxa. Expand
The phylogeny of the living and fossil Sphenisciformes (penguins)
TLDR
The results do not support an expansion of the Spheniscidae from a cooling Continental Antarctica, but instead suggest those species that currently breed in that area are the descendants of colonizers from the Subantarctic. Expand
The Illusory Evidence for Asian Brachiosauridae: New Material of Erketu ellisoni and a Phylogenetic Reappraisal of Basal Titanosauriformes
TLDR
Phylogenetic results support a sister group relationship between the Asian Cretaceous sauropods Erketu and Qiaowanlong, erasing the evidence for the dispersal of Brachiosauridae into Asia. Expand
Earth history and the passerine superradiation
TLDR
Recon reconstructing passerine evolutionary history and producing the most comprehensive time-calibrated phylogenetic hypothesis of the group, which suggests more complex mechanisms than temperature change or ecological opportunity have controlled macroscale patterns of passerine speciation. Expand
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