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Bloodmeal identification by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), tested on Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Kenya.
TLDR
A direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for bloodmeal identification of seven hosts and a system was developed whereby a single mosquito could be tested by both the blood meal ELISA and the malaria sporozoite ELISA.
Differentiation between African populations is evidenced by the diversity of alleles and haplotypes of HLA class I loci.
TLDR
The genetic diversity of the HLA system in African populations poses practical challenges for the design of T-cell vaccines and for the transplantation medical community to find HLA-matched unrelated donors for patients in need of an allogeneic transplant.
Visceral leishmaniasis unresponsive to pentostam caused by Leishmania tropica in Kenya.
TLDR
These are the first reported cases of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) caused by L. tropica in Africa; these cases were refractory to sodium stibogluconate.
Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from Nairobi (Kenya): inferring phylogenetic parameters for the establishment of a forensic database
TLDR
A high quality mtDNA control region sequence database for urban Nairobi is established as both a reference database for forensic investigations, and as a tool to examine the genetic variation of Kenyan sequences in the context of known African variation.
Malaria sporozoite detection by dissection and ELISA to assess infectivity of afrotropical Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae).
Malaria infection rates determined by dissection and Plasmodium falciparum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were compared for 26,935 Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu lato and 17,739 Anopheles
Environmental, socio‐demographic and behavioural determinants of malaria risk in the western Kenyan highlands: a case–control study
Objective  To identify risk factors for uncomplicated malaria in highland areas of East Africa at higher risk of malaria epidemics, in order to design appropriate interventions.
Characterization of malaria transmission by Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya in preparation for malaria vaccine trials.
TLDR
Malaria vaccine trials could be conducted efficiently in western Kenya, with timing dependent upon the intensity of transmission required by vaccine trial objectives, and the use of tents in vaccine efficacy trials should provide adequate exposure for nonindigenous volunteers.
Large-scale, polymerase chain reaction-based surveillance of Schistosoma haematobium DNA in snails from transmission sites in coastal Kenya: a new tool for studying the dynamics of snail infection.
TLDR
Monitoring of prepatent Schistosoma haematobium infection in intermediate host snails collected from transmission sites in coastal Kenya indicated a significant degree of repeated area contamination with parasite ova, and implications of these new data are discussed regarding the estimation of local force of transmission and the design of control activities.
Increased ratio of tumor necrosis factor-alpha to interleukin-10 production is associated with Schistosoma haematobium-induced urinary-tract morbidity.
TLDR
Increased TNF-alpha production, relative to that of IL-10, is associated with developing bladder-wall morbidity with S. haematobium infection, suggesting an innate hyperresponsiveness.
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