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Smoke and Dust Particles of Meteoric Origin in the Mesosphere and Stratosphere
Abstract A height profile of ablated mass from meteors is calculated, assuming an incoming mass of 10−16 g cm−2 s−1 (44 metric tons per day) and the velocity distribution of Southworth and Sekanina,Expand
The abundances of constituents of Titan's atmosphere from the GCMS instrument on the Huygens probe
Direct atmospheric measurements from the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS), including altitude profiles of the constituents, isotopic ratios and trace species (including organic compounds), were reported, confirming the primary constituents were confirmed to be nitrogen and methane. Expand
The composition of the Jovian atmosphere as determined by the Galileo probe mass spectrometer.
Analysis of some of the constituents detected suggests that icy planetesimals made significant contributions to the volatile inventory, and (4) a moderate decrease in D/H but no detectable change in (D + 3He)/H in this part of the galaxy during the past 4.6 Gyr. Expand
Helium in Jupiter's atmosphere: Results from the Galileo probe Helium Interferometer Experiment
On December 7, 1995, the NASA Galileo probe provided the first in situ measurements of the helium abundance in the atmosphere of Jupiter. Our Jamin interferometer measured precisely the refractiveExpand
The microphysics of the clouds of Venus: Results of the Pioneer Venus Particle Size Spectrometer Experiment
The results of the particle size spectrometer experiment on the Pioneer Venus sounder probe are presented. The vertical cloud structure is found to consist of three primary cloud regions ofExpand
The Escape of Light Gases from Planetary Atmospheres
Abstract The Jeans-Spitzer treatment of atmospheric escape by evaporation must be supplemented, for a mixture of gases, by a discussion of the mutual diffusion and mixing of the components. A recentExpand
Mass fractionation in hydrodynamic escape
We show that mass fractionation occurs during the course of hydrodynamic escape of gases from the atmosphere of an inner planet. Light gases escape more readily than heavy gases. The resultantExpand
A photometric unit for the airglow and aurora
It is suggested that the angular surface brightness B of these sources be measured in units of 106 quanta/cm2 sec sterad. The number quoted should be 4πB, and the unit of 4πB should be called theExpand
The Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer: Composition of Jupiter's Atmosphere
The measured ratio of deuterium to hydrogen (D/H) indicates that this ratio is greater in solar-system hydrogen than in local interstellar hydrogen, and the 3He/4He ratio provides a new value for protosolar (solar nebula) helium isotopes. Expand
Venus II--geology, geophysics, atmosphere, and solar wind environment
The final orbit of Venus by the Magellan spacecraft in October 1994 brought to a close an exciting period of Venus reconnaissance and exploration. The scientific studies resulting from data collectedExpand