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Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance: a Multifaceted Threat
TLDR
The best-described form of PMQR is determined by the qnr group of genes, likely originating in aquatic organisms, which code for pentapeptide repeat proteins that reduce susceptibility to quinolones by protecting the complex of DNA and DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV enzymes from the inhibitory effect of qu inolones.
Fluoroquinolone-modifying enzyme: a new adaptation of a common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase
TLDR
Reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in clinical bacterial isolates conferred by a variant of the gene encoding aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6′)-Ib, first reported in 2003 and now widely disseminated is described.
qnr Prevalence in Ceftazidime-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from the United States
TLDR
ABSTRACT The authors screened 313 ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates obtained in the United States from 1999 to 2004 for all three known qnr genes and found qnrA and qnrB occurred with equivalent frequencies and, except for qnrS, were stable over time.
Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli from Shanghai, China
TLDR
Transferable plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance associated with qnr is prevalent in quinOLone-resistant clinical strains of E. coli from Shanghai and may contribute to the rapid increase in bacterial resistance to qu inolones in China.
Prevalence in the United States of aac(6′)-Ib-cr Encoding a Ciprofloxacin-Modifying Enzyme
TLDR
Aac(6′)-Ib-cr was geographically widespread, stable over time, most common in Escherichia coli, equally prevalent in ciprofloxacin-susceptible and -resistant strains, and not associated with qnr genes.
Mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance.
  • D. Hooper
  • Biology, Medicine
    Drug resistance updates : reviews and…
  • 1 February 1999
Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones fall into two principal categories, alterations in drug target enzymes and alterations that limit permeation of drug to the target, both
Enterobacter bacteremia: clinical features and emergence of antibiotic resistance during therapy.
TLDR
More judicious use of third-generation cephalosporins may decrease the incidence of nosocomial multiresistant Enterobacter spp.
qnrB, Another Plasmid-Mediated Gene for Quinolone Resistance
TLDR
The qnrB gene has been found in a plasmid encoding the CTX-M-15 β-lactamase from a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated in South India, suggesting that it too was acquired by plasmids from an as-yet-unknown bacterial source.
Emerging mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance.
  • D. Hooper
  • Biology, Medicine
    Emerging infectious diseases
  • 1 March 2001
Broad use of fluoroquinolones has been followed by emergence of resistance, which has been due mainly to chromosomal mutations in genes encoding the subunits of the drugs' target enzymes, DNA gyrase
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