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Simulating dynamical features of escape panic
A model of pedestrian behaviour is used to investigate the mechanisms of panic and jamming by uncoordinated motion in crowds, and an optimal strategy for escape from a smoke-filled room is found, involving a mixture of individualistic behaviour and collective ‘herding’ instinct.
Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities
- L. Bettencourt, J. Lobo, D. Helbing, C. Kühnert, G. West
- EconomicsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 24 April 2007
Empirical evidence is presented indicating that the processes relating urbanization to economic development and knowledge creation are very general, being shared by all cities belonging to the same urban system and sustained across different nations and times.
Traffic and related self-driven many-particle systems
- D. Helbing
- Computer Science
- 13 December 2000
This article considers the empirical data and then reviews the main approaches to modeling pedestrian and vehicle traffic, including microscopic (particle-based), mesoscopic (gas-kinetic), and macroscopic (fluid-dynamic) models.
General Lane-Changing Model MOBIL for Car-Following Models
A general model (minimizing overall braking induced by lane change, MOBIL) is proposed to derive lane-changing rules for discretionary and mandatory lane changes for a wide class of car-following models and allows one to vary the motivation for lane changing from purely egoistic to more cooperative driving behavior.
Enhanced intelligent driver model to access the impact of driving strategies on traffic capacity
- A. Kesting, M. Treiber, D. Helbing
- BusinessPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A…
- 18 December 2009
A new car-following model is proposed that also serves as the basis of an ACC implementation in real cars and eliminates the sometimes unrealistic behaviour of the IDM in cut-in situations with ensuing small gaps that regularly are caused by lane changes of other vehicles in dense or congested traffic.
The Hidden Geometry of Complex, Network-Driven Contagion Phenomena
It is shown that complex spatiotemporal patterns can be reduced to surprisingly simple, homogeneous wave propagation patterns, if conventional geographic distance is replaced by a probabilistically motivated effective distance, in the context of global, air-traffic–mediated epidemics.
The Walking Behaviour of Pedestrian Social Groups and Its Impact on Crowd Dynamics
Analyzing the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition shows that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics, demonstrating that crowd dynamics is not only determined by physical constraints induced by other pedestrians and the environment, but also significantly by communicative, social interaction among individuals.
How social influence can undermine the wisdom of crowd effect
- J. Lorenz, H. Rauhut, F. Schweitzer, D. Helbing
- PsychologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 16 May 2011
This work demonstrates by experimental evidence that even mild social influence can undermine the wisdom of crowd effect in simple estimation tasks.
GENERALIZED FORCE MODEL OF TRAFFIC DYNAMICS
Floating car data of car-following behavior in cities were compared to existing microsimulation models, after their parameters had been calibrated to the experimental data and good results were obtained with the proposed generalized force model.
Dynamics of crowd disasters: an empirical study.
- D. Helbing, A. Johansson, H. Z. Al-Abideen
- PhysicsPhysical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and…
- 18 January 2007
Video recordings of the crowd disaster in Mina/Makkah during the Hajj in 1426H on 12 January 2006 are analyzed and reveal two subsequent, sudden transitions from laminar to stop-and-go and "turbulent" flows, which question many previous simulation models.