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Unsafe abortion: the preventable pandemic
Ending the silent pandemic of unsafe abortion is an urgent public-health and human-rights imperative. As with other more visible global-health issues, this scourge threatens women throughout theExpand
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Randomized phase II trial of the efficacy and safety of trastuzumab combined with docetaxel in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer administered as
PURPOSE This randomized, multicenter trial compared first-line trastuzumab plus docetaxel versus docetaxel alone in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive metastaticExpand
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Bias and causal associations in observational research
Readers of medical literature need to consider two types of validity, internal and external. Internal validity means that the study measured what it set out to; external validity is the ability toExpand
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Refining clinical diagnosis with likelihood ratios
Likelihood ratios can refine clinical diagnosis on the basis of signs and symptoms; however, they are underused for patients' care. A likelihood ratio is the percentage of ill people with a givenExpand
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An overview of clinical research: the lay of the land
Many clinicians report that they cannot read the medical literature critically. To address this difficulty, we provide a primer of clinical research for clinicians and researchers alike. ClinicalExpand
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Generation of allocation sequences in randomised trials: chance, not choice
The randomised controlled trial sets the gold standard of clinical research. Expand
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Blinding in randomised trials: hiding who got what
Blinding embodies a rich history spanning over two centuries. Most researchers worldwide understand blinding terminology, but confusion lurks beyond a general comprehension. Terms such as singleExpand
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Sample size calculations in randomised trials: mandatory and mystical
Investigators should properly calculate sample sizes before the start of their randomised trials and adequately describe the details in their published report. In these a-priori calculations,Expand
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Allocation concealment in randomised trials: defending against deciphering
Proper randomisation rests on adequate allocation concealment. An allocation concealment process keeps clinicians and participants unaware of upcoming assignments. Without it, even properly developedExpand
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Uses and abuses of screening tests
Screening tests are ubiquitous in contemporary practice, yet the principles of screening are widely misunderstood. Screening is the testing of apparently well people to find those at increased riskExpand
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