Neopterin as a marker for immune system activation.
Neopterin production provides prognostic information in patients with malignant tumor diseases and in HIV-infected individuals, high levels being associated with poorer survival expectations and the extent of oxidative stress can be estimated by neopterin measurements.
HIV inhibits CD4+ T-cell proliferation by inducing indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
It is shown that IDO mRNA expression is elevated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV(+) patients compared with uninfected healthy controls (HCs), and that in vitro inhibition of IDO with the competitive blocker 1-methyl tryptophan (1-mT) results in increased CD4(+) T-cell proliferative response in PBMCs from HIV-infected patients.
Potential role of immune system activation-associated production of neopterin derivatives in humans
Data support the hypothesis that the release of neopterin enhances the cytotoxic potential of activated macrophages and dendritic cells, and the influence ofNeopterin derivatives on the cellular metabolism may provide an explanation for these clinical observations.
Prognostic value of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in colorectal cancer: effect on tumor-infiltrating T cells.
IDO-high expression by colorectal tumor cells enables certain cancer subsets to initially avoid immune attack and defeat the invasion of T cells via local tryptophan depletion and the production of proapoptotic tryPTophan catabolites.
Interferon-alpha–induced changes in tryptophan metabolism relationship to depression and paroxetine treatment
Monitoring tryptophan metabolism in chronic immune activation.
Immune response-associated production of neopterin. Release from macrophages primarily under control of interferon-gamma
It is demonstrated that macrophages stimulated with supernatant from activated T cells release large amounts of neopterin into culture supernatants, indicating that a metabolic pathway so far exclusively known in context with the generation of an essential cofactor of neurotransmitter-synthesis during immune responses is also activated in M phi under stringent control by immune IFN-like lymphokines.
The role of psychological and biological factors in postinfective gut dysfunction
EDITOR,—A recent clinical alert (Gut 1999;44:311–12) commented on a study of risk factors for relapse in Crohn’s disease. The author concluded that, unlike the established association with smoking,…
HIV-1 viral escape in cerebrospinal fluid of subjects on suppressive antiretroviral treatment.
Viral escape in CSF is more common than previously reported, suggesting that low-grade central nervous system infection may continue in treated patients, and the utility of monitoring CSF responses, as new treatment combinations and strategies modify clinical practice is suggested.
Tryptophan degradation and immune activation in Alzheimer's disease
- B. Widner, F. Leblhuber, J. Walli, G. Tilz, U. Demel, D. Fuchs
- Biology, MedicineJournal of neural transmission
Tryptophan degradation due to immune activation may exert impact on the pathogenesis of AD and increased Kyn/Trp was associated with reduced cognitive performance.