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The Cambrian Conundrum: Early Divergence and Later Ecological Success in the Early History of Animals
A compilation of the patterns of fossil and molecular diversification, comparative developmental data, and information on ecological feeding strategies indicate that the major animal clades diverged many tens of millions of years before their first appearance in the fossil record. Expand
Pattern of marine mass extinction near the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China.
A statistical analysis of the occurrences of 162 genera and 333 species confirms a sudden extinction event at 251.4 million years ago, coincident with a dramatic depletion of delta13C(carbonate) and an increase in microspherules. Expand
Calibrating the End-Permian Mass Extinction
High-precision geochronologic dating constrains probable causes of Earth's largest mass extinction and reveals that the extinction peak occurred just before 252.28 ± 0.08 million years ago, after a decline of 2 per mil (‰) in δ13C over 90,000 years, and coincided with a δ 13C excursion that is estimated to have lasted ≤20,000 Years. Expand
Extinction: How Life on Earth Nearly Ended 250 Million Years Ago
Acknowledgments vii CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1 CHAPTER 2: A Cacophony of Causes 17 CHAPTER 3: South China Interlude 59 CHAPTER 4: It's a Matter of Time 77 CHAPTER 5: Filter Feeding Fails 98 CHAPTER 6:Expand
Gene Regulatory Networks and the Evolution of Animal Body Plans
This work identifies a class of GRN component, the kernels, of the network, which, because of their developmental role and their particular internal structure, are most impervious to change. Expand
The Permo–Triassic extinction
The end-Permian mass extinction brought the Palaeozoic great experiment in marine life to a close during an interval of intense climatic, tectonic and geochemical change. Improved knowledge of latestExpand
Lessons from the past: Biotic recoveries from mass extinctions
  • D. Erwin
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 1 December 2000
Empirical studies reveal a more complex dynamic, including positive feedback and an exponential growth phase during recoveries, which is far from a model of refilling ecospace, which must be rebuilt during recovery. Expand
Abrupt and Gradual Extinction Among Late Permian Land Vertebrates in the Karoo Basin, South Africa
The vertebrate fossil data show a gradual extinction in the Upper Permian punctuated by an enhanced extinction pulse at the Permians-Triassic boundary interval, particularly among the dicynodont therapsids, coinciding with negative carbon-isotope anomalies. Expand
Possible animal-body fossils in pre-Marinoan limestones from South Australia
The Neoproterozoic era was punctuated by the Sturtian (about 710 million years ago) and Marinoan (about 635 million years ago) intervals of glaciation. In South Australia, the rocks left behind byExpand