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Animal phylogeny and the ancestry of bilaterians: inferences from morphology and 18S rDNA gene sequences
Because chaetognaths and lophophorates, taxa traditionally allied with deuterostomes, occupy basal positions within their respective protostomian clades, deuterstomy most likely represents a suite of characters plesiomorphic for bilaterians.
Annelida and Arthropoda are Not Sister Taxa: A Phylogenetic Analysis of Spiralian Metazoan Morphology
This study presents a new analysis of 141 independently assembled characters, purported to represent the current state of knowledge of metazoan morphology and embryology, and results in robust support of the Eutrochozoa hypothesis.
Taxonomic congruence versus total evidence, and amniote phylogeny inferred from fossils, molecules, and morphology.
It is concluded that a more highly resolved and robust phylogenetic hypothesis of amniotes, the traditional one, emerges when a total evidence approach is employed.
Towards a phylogeny of chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) based on combined analysis of five molecular loci
The results refute several aspects of conventional classifications of chitons that are based primarily on shell characters, reinforcing the idea that chiton classification should be revised using additional characters.
Arthropod and annelid relationships re-examined
- D. Eernisse
Rouse and Fauchald (1995) continued to find support for the conventional grouping of annelids and arthropods as sister taxa, termed Articulata Cuvier, 1817, in their cladistic analysis based on 13 morphological characters.
What Molecular Phylogenies Tell Us about the Evolution of Larval Forms
Alternative hypotheses for larval trait synapomorphies among phyla, evolution of feeding with opposed prototrochal and metatrochal ciliary bands, and the retention or reacquisition of the locomotory nauplius of the Euphausiacea and Dendrobranchiata show that inferences from phylogenetic studies will ultimately be limited by the extent to which homoplasy and polarity can be unambiguously assessed for larvals traits.
Photoperiodic Regulation of Gametogenesis in Sea Stars, with Evidence for an Annual Calendar Independent of Fixed Daylength
Gametogenesis and gonadal growth in the west coast sea star Pisaster ochraceus normally begins in the fall and leads to large gonads full of gametes in the spring, when spawning occurs, but the mechanism of the photoperiodic response is fundamentally different.
Phylogeny and Species Diversity of Gulf of California Oysters (Ostreidae) Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA*
Olympic oyster surveys revealed at least six other co-occurring species, including two exotics, of Ostreidae Rafinesque, 1815 that were identified by sequencing 16S ribosomal DNA (16S) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial markers, and phylogenetic analyses included OStreidae from worldwide localities available in GenBank.
Photoperiodic regulation of gametogenesis and gonadal growth in the sea star Pisaster ochraceus
Long daylengths (or short nightlengths) in spring and summer apparently synchronize or entrain the initiaion of gametogenesis and gonadal growth in fall and phase shift of all these events was evident within 6 to 9 mo.
Charting Evolution’s Trajectory: Using Molluscan Eye Diversity to Understand Parallel and Convergent Evolution
This paper discusses how molluscan eyes can be applied to the study of evolution by examining patterns of convergent and parallel evolution and provides several examples, including the putative convergence of the camera-type eyes of cephalopods and vertebrates.