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Synthesis of Biodiesel via Acid Catalysis
Biodiesel is synthesized via the transesterification of lipid feedstocks with low molecular weight alcohols. Currently, alkaline bases are used to catalyze the reaction. These catalysts requireExpand
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Transesterification of triacetin with methanol on solid acid and base catalysts
Abstract Biodiesel is a particularly attractive renewable fuel as it can be used in existing engines, is environmentally friendly, and is readily synthesized from animal fats and vegetable oils.Expand
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Transesterification of triacetin with methanol on Nafion® acid resins
Abstract Although homogeneous alkali catalysts (e.g., NaOH) are commonly used to produce biodiesel by transesterification of triglycerides (vegetable oils and animal fats) and methanol, solid acidExpand
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Activation and deactivation characteristics of sulfonated carbon catalysts
Abstract Recently, there have been reports in the literature on sulfonated carbon catalysts prepared from sugars exhibiting interesting acid catalytic properties. However, to date, little has beenExpand
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Abstract As part of ongoing efforts to investigate heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel synthesis, the catalytic activity of the strong solid acid tungstated zirconia (WZ) was studied for theExpand
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Abstract In this paper, modified zirconias (WZ, SZ, and TiZ) have been extensively compared under the same reaction conditions as catalysts for both the transesterification of triglycerides (TGs) andExpand
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Energy Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Biodiesel from Rendered Lipids in the United States
The energy life cycle assessment for the production of biodiesel from rendered lipids in the United States is presented in this study. Three different scenarios were found eligible for analysis: (I)Expand
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Desalination of hypersaline brines with joule-heating and chemical pre-treatment: Conceptual design and economics
Abstract Conventional seawater desalination technologies and fossil energy operations produce large volumes of hypersaline brines requiring proper management. Zero liquid discharge desalinationExpand
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Reaction Kinetics and Mechanism for the Gas- and Liquid-Phase Esterification of Acetic Acid with Methanol on Tungstated Zirconia
A comprehensive kinetic investigation of the esterification of acetic acid with methanol in both the liquid phase (21−60 °C) and the gas phase (100−140 °C) was carried out using tungstated zirconiaExpand
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Transesterification of Glycerol Triacetate with Methanol on Acid and Base Catalysts
There is much interest in the conversion of fats and vegetable oils to biodiesel due to its desirable environmental, renewable and biodegradable properties. A major problem of the conventionalExpand