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Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework.
Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptiveExpand
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An international literature survey of "IARC Group I carcinogens" reported in mainstream cigarette smoke.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) currently lists 44 individual chemical agents, 12 groups or mixtures of chemicals and 13 exposure circumstances as "Group 1 human carcinogens".Expand
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"IARC group 2A Carcinogens" reported in cigarette mainstream smoke.
As a follow-up to an earlier study on IARC Group I compounds, further efforts have been made to evaluate the international literature on cigarette mainstream smoke for reports on constituentsExpand
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Recommendations for the performance of UDS tests in vitro and in vivo.
The Working Group (WG) dealt with the harmonization of routine methodologies of tests for unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast to the existing guidelines from OECD,Expand
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The genotoxic potential of nicotine and its major metabolites.
Nicotine is a naturally occurring alkaloid found primarily in members of the solanaceous plant family, which includes tobacco. Nicotine is rapidly absorbed by humans and then metabolized, primarilyExpand
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Inhibition of mutagenicity of N-nitrosamines by tobacco smoke and its constituents.
Tobacco smoke is a complex chemical mixture including pyridine alkaloids and N-nitrosamines, with the concentration of the former several orders of magnitude higher that that of the N-nitrosamines.Expand
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Evaluation of eight in vitro assays for assessing the cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke condensate.
The accurate assessment of cytotoxicity is important for evaluating the potential of a test agent to induce pathologies that result from cell killing and to determine appropriate doses for otherExpand
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A comparison of the mainstream smoke chemistry and mutagenicity of a representative sample of the US cigarette market with two Kentucky reference cigarettes (K1R4F and K1R5F).
The incorporation of technologies into cigarettes such as filters, filter ventilation, porous cigarette papers, expanded tobacco and reconstituted tobacco sheet has resulted in cigarettes with a wideExpand
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Progressive alterations in global and GC-rich DNA methylation during tumorigenesis.
DNA methylation plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression, and failure to maintain normal patterns of methylation often contributes to carcinogenesis. We have characterized progressiveExpand
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Comparative studies on the genotoxic activity of mainstream smoke condensate from cigarettes which burn or only heat tobacco
The in vitro genotoxic activity of mainstream cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from cigarettes which heat but do not burn tobacco was compared to that of CSC from cigarettes which burn tobacco. CSCsExpand
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