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A preprandial rise in plasma ghrelin levels suggests a role in meal initiation in humans.
TLDR
The hypothesis that ghrelin plays a physiological role in meal initiation in humans is supported by the clear preprandials rise and postprandial fall in plasma ghrelIn levels. Expand
Plasma ghrelin levels after diet-induced weight loss or gastric bypass surgery.
TLDR
The increase in the plasma ghrelin level with diet-induced weight loss is consistent with the hypothesis that gh Relin has a role in the long-term regulation of body weight. Expand
Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight
TLDR
This new information provides a biological context within which to consider the global obesity epidemic and identifies numerous potential avenues for therapeutic intervention and future research. Expand
Gastrointestinal regulation of food intake.
TLDR
This Review summarizes current knowledge regarding the neuroendocrine regulation of food intake by the gastrointestinal system, focusing on gastric distention, intestinal and pancreatic satiation peptides, and the orexigenic gastric hormone ghrelin, and highlights mechanisms governing nutrient sensing and peptide secretion by enteroendocrine cells. Expand
The Mechanism of Diabetes Control After Gastrointestinal Bypass Surgery Reveals a Role of the Proximal Small Intestine in the Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes
TLDR
This study shows that bypassing a short segment of proximal intestine directly ameliorates type 2 diabetes, independently of effects on food intake, body weight, malabsorption, or nutrient delivery to the hindgut. Expand
Ghrelin and the short- and long-term regulation of appetite and body weight
TLDR
Extant evidence favors roles for ghrelin in both short-term meal initiation and long-term energy homeostasis, making it an attractive target for drugs to treat obesity and/or wasting disorders. Expand
Ghrelin induces feeding in the mesolimbic reward pathway between the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens
TLDR
Interaction of a metabolic factor with the reward system in feeding behavior is suggested, indicating that hedonic responses can be modulated by homeostatic factors. Expand
Gastric bypass for obesity: mechanisms of weight loss and diabetes resolution.
TLDR
Because of this body weight regulation system, known as energy homeostasis, nonsurgical methods are notoriously ineffective at achieving major, long-term weight reduction. Expand
Postprandial suppression of plasma ghrelin level is proportional to ingested caloric load but does not predict intermeal interval in humans.
TLDR
It is concluded that the depth of postprandial ghrelin suppression is proportional to ingested caloric load but that recovery of plasma gh Relin is not a critical determinant of intermeal interval. Expand
Genetically lean mice result from targeted disruption of the RIIβ subunit of protein kinase A
TLDR
A role for the RIIβ holoenzyme in regulating energy balance and adiposity is demonstrated, and mutants appear healthy but have markedly diminished white adipose tissue despite normal food intake, and are protected against developing diet-induced obesity and fatty livers. Expand
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