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The evidence that the evolution of breeding systems of animals and plants has been significantly influenced by the occurrence of inbreeding depression is reviewed, and the contemporary genetic theory of inmarriage depression and heterosis and the experimental data concerning the strength of in breeding depression are considered. Expand
Rates of spontaneous mutation.
It is now possible to specify some of the evolutionary forces that shape these diverse mutation rates in broad groups of organisms. Expand
The effect of deleterious mutations on neutral molecular variation.
Observed reductions in molecular variation in low recombination genomic regions of sufficiently large size, for instance in the centromere-proximal regions of Drosophila autosomes or in highly selfing plant populations, may be partly due to background selection against deleterious mutations. Expand
A Model for the Evolution of Dioecy and Gynodioecy
The equilibria generated by the model agree closely with the results of genetical studies of those dioecious species with male-determining Y chromosomes that have been investigated, in which both male-and female-sterility factors have been found, showing complementary dominance relations and no crossing-over between the loci. Expand
The genetics of inbreeding depression
Inbreeding depression — the reduced survival and fertility of offspring of related individuals — occurs in wild animal and plant populations as well as in humans, indicating that genetic variation inExpand
Steps in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes
Evidence that recombination suppression occurs progressively in evolutionarily independent cases is reviewed, suggesting that selection drives loss of recombination over increasingly large regions. Expand
Balancing Selection and Its Effects on Sequences in Nearby Genome Regions
New sequence data being gathered from genes in which polymorphisms are known to be maintained by selection can be interpreted in conjunction with results from population genetics models that include recombination between selected sites and nearby neutral marker variants. Expand
The effects of local selection, balanced polymorphism and background selection on equilibrium patterns of genetic diversity in subdivided populations.
Levels of neutral genetic diversity in populations subdivided into two demes were studied by multilocus stochastic simulations, showing that, with population subdivision, local selection enhances between-deme diversity even at neutral sites distant from the polymorphic locus, producing higher FST values than with no selection. Expand
The population dynamics of transposable elements
Analytical and simulation models of the population dynamics of transposable elements in randomly mating populations, derived on the assumption of independence between different loci, and compared with simulation results show the general pattern seen in the simulations agrees quite well with theory. Expand