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Kepler Planet-Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results
The planetary findings derived from the first six weeks of observations with the Kepler mission are summarized, which include the detection of five new exoplanets, which confirm the existence of planets with densities substantially lower than those predicted for gas giant planets.
THE FALSE POSITIVE RATE OF KEPLER AND THE OCCURRENCE OF PLANETS
The Kepler mission is uniquely suited to study the frequencies of extrasolar planets. This goal requires knowledge of the incidence of false positives such as eclipsing binaries in the background of…
A super-Earth transiting a nearby low-mass star
Observations of the transiting planet GJ’1214b are reported, finding that the planetary mass and radius are consistent with a composition of primarily water enshrouded by a hydrogen–helium envelope that is only 0.05% of the mass of the planet.
The Occurrence of Potentially Habitable Planets Orbiting M Dwarfs Estimated from the Full Kepler Dataset and an Empirical Measurement of the Detection Sensitivity
We present an improved estimate of the occurrence rate of small planets orbiting small stars by searching the full four-year Kepler data set for transiting planets using our own planet detection…
Detection of an Extrasolar Planet Atmosphere
We report high-precision spectrophotometric observations of four planetary transits of HD 209458, in the region of the sodium resonance doublet at 589.3 nm. We find that the photometric dimming…
Characteristics of planetary candidates observed by Kepler, II: Analysis of the first four months of data
On 2011 February 1 the Kepler mission released data for 156,453 stars observed from the beginning of the science observations on 2009 May 2 through September 16. There are 1235 planetary candidates…
THE OCCURRENCE RATE OF SMALL PLANETS AROUND SMALL STARS
We use the optical and near-infrared photometry from the Kepler Input Catalog to provide improved estimates of the stellar characteristics of the smallest stars in the Kepler target list. We find…
Hubble Space Telescope Time-Series Photometry of the Transiting Planet of HD?209458
We have observed four transits of the planet of HD 209458 using the STIS spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Summing the recorded counts over wavelength between 582 and 638 nm yields a…
A closely packed system of low-mass, low-density planets transiting Kepler-11
Kepler spacecraft observations of a single Sun-like star are reported that reveal six transiting planets, five with orbital periods between 10 and 47 days and a sixth planet with a longer period, among the smallest for which mass and size have both been measured.
A map of the day–night contrast of the extrasolar planet HD 189733b
Observations of HD 189733, the closest of these eclipsing planetary systems, over half an orbital period are reported, from which a ‘map’ of the distribution of temperatures is constructed, indicating that energy from the irradiated dayside is efficiently redistributed throughout the atmosphere.