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The genetic history of Ice Age Europe
Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. We analyze genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from…
A Revised Timescale for Human Evolution Based on Ancient Mitochondrial Genomes
The origin of European cattle: evidence from modern and ancient DNA.
- A. Beja-Pereira, D. Caramelli, G. Bertorelle
- Biology, MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 23 May 2006
Previously undescribed genetic evidence is presented in contrast with this view based on mtDNA sequences from five Italian aurochsen dated between 7,000 and 17,000 years B.P. and >1,000 modern cattle from 51 breeds to suggest the European cattle may represent a more variable and valuable genetic resource than previously realized.
The Beaker Phenomenon and the Genomic Transformation of Northwest Europe
Genome-wide data from 400 Neolithic, Copper Age and Bronze Age Europeans is presented, finding limited genetic affinity between Beaker-complex-associated individuals from Iberia and central Europe, and excludes migration as an important mechanism of spread between these two regions.
The genetic impact of demographic decline and reintroduction in the wild boar (Sus scrofa): A microsatellite analysis
Analysis of microsatellite loci is an important tool for estimating the genetic effect of reintroduction in the wild boar, and therefore for the development of conservation and management strategies for this species.
Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans
- D. Caramelli, C. Lalueza-Fox, G. Bertorelle
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 12 May 2003
Following the most stringent current standards for validation of ancient DNA sequences, it is shown that the mtDNAs of two anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens individuals of the Cro-Magnon type dated at about 23 and 25 thousand years ago fall well within the range of variation of today's humans, but differ sharply from the available sequences of the chronologically closer Neandertals.
Palaeogenetic evidence supports a dual model of Neolithic spreading into Europe
- M. Sampietro, O. Lao, C. Lalueza-Fox
- Environmental ScienceProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological…
- 7 September 2007
A dual model of Neolithic spread is proposed: acculturation in Central Europe and demic diffusion in southern Europe and shows that the haplogroup composition of the Neolithic population is very similar to that found in modern populations from the Iberian Peninsula, suggesting a long-time genetic continuity.
The Genomic History of Southeastern Europe
It is shown that southeastern Europe continued to be a nexus between east and west after the arrival of farmers, with intermittent genetic contact with steppe populations occurring up to 2,000 years earlier than the migrations from the steppe that ultimately replaced much of the population of northern Europe.
A Melanocortin 1 Receptor Allele Suggests Varying Pigmentation Among Neanderthals
The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) regulates pigmentation in humans and other vertebrates. Variants of MC1R with reduced function are associated with pale skin color and red hair in humans of…
Neanderthal behaviour, diet, and disease inferred from ancient DNA in dental calculus
The shotgun-sequencing of ancient DNA from five specimens of Neanderthal calcified dental plaque is described and the characterization of regional differences in Neanderthal ecology is described, suggesting that meat consumption contributed to substantial variation within Neanderthal microbiota.