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Macrophages that have ingested apoptotic cells in vitro inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms involving TGF-beta, PGE2, and PAF.
- V. Fadok, D. Bratton, A. Konowal, P. W. Freed, J. Westcott, P. Henson
- Biology, MedicineThe Journal of clinical investigation
- 15 February 1998
The results suggest that binding and/or phagocytosis of apoptotic cells induces active antiinflammatory or suppressive properties in human macrophages, likely that resolution of inflammation depends not only on the removal of apoptosis but on active suppression of inflammatory mediator production.
Cell-Surface Calreticulin Initiates Clearance of Viable or Apoptotic Cells through trans-Activation of LRP on the Phagocyte
C1q and Mannose Binding Lectin Engagement of Cell Surface Calreticulin and Cd91 Initiates Macropinocytosis and Uptake of Apoptotic Cells
- C. A. Ogden, A. deCathelineau, P. Henson
- BiologyThe Journal of experimental medicine
- 17 September 2001
Evidence is provided that C1q and mannose binding lectin (MBL), a member of the collectin family of proteins, bind to apoptotic cells and stimulate ingestion of these by ligation on the phagocyte surface of the multifunctional protein, calreticulin.
A receptor for phosphatidylserine-specific clearance of apoptotic cells
Using phage display, a gene that appears to recognize phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells is cloned and shown to be highly homologous to genes of unknown function in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting that phosphatido-serine recognition on apoptosis cells during their removal by phagocytes is highly conserved throughout phylogeny.
Exposure of phosphatidylserine on the surface of apoptotic lymphocytes triggers specific recognition and removal by macrophages.
- V. Fadok, D. Voelker, P. Campbell, J. Cohen, D. Bratton, P. Henson
- BiologyJournal of immunology
- 1 April 1992
The data suggest that macrophages specifically recognize phosphatidylserine that is exposed on the surface of lymphocytes during the development of apoptosis, and suggest that apoptotic lymphocytes lose membrane phospholipid asymmetry and expose phosphorus on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane.
×Phosphorylation of Bax Ser184 by Akt Regulates Its Activity and Apoptosis in Neutrophils*
It is suggested that Bax is regulated by phosphorylation of Ser184 in an Akt-dependent manner and thatosphorylation inhibits Bax effects on the mitochondria by maintaining the protein in the cytoplasm, heterodimerized with antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members.
Differential Effects of Apoptotic Versus Lysed Cells on Macrophage Production of Cytokines: Role of Proteases1
It is suggested that anti-inflammatory signals can be given by PtdSer-containing cell membranes, whether from early apoptotic, late apoptotic or lysed cells, but can be overcome by proteases liberated during lysis.
Phosphatidylserine (PS) induces PS receptor–mediated macropinocytosis and promotes clearance of apoptotic cells
The results suggest that regardless of the receptors engaged on the phagocyte, ingestion does not occur in the absence of phosphatidylserine (PS), and recognition of PS was found to be dependent on the presence of the PS receptor (PSR).
Different populations of macrophages use either the vitronectin receptor or the phosphatidylserine receptor to recognize and remove apoptotic cells.
The results suggest that the mechanism by which apoptotic cells are recognized and phagocytosed by macrophages is determined by the subpopulation of macrophage studied.
CD36 is required for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by human macrophages that use either a phosphatidylserine receptor or the vitronectin receptor (alpha v beta 3).
Whether human monocyte-derived macrophages could be stimulated to recognize PS was determined, defined as inhibition of phagocytosis by PS-containing liposomes by anti-CD36 and the potential roles for scavenger receptors, CD14, and lectins were assessed.