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Carbohydrate-binding modules: fine-tuning polysaccharide recognition.
The present review summarizes the impact structural biology has had on the understanding of the mechanisms by which CBMs bind to their target ligands. Expand
Recognition and Degradation of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides by Two Human Gut Symbionts
Competition for nutrients contained in diverse types of plant cell wall-associated polysaccharides may explain the evolution of substrate-specific catabolic gene modules in common bacterial membersExpand
Specificity of Polysaccharide Use in Intestinal Bacteroides Species Determines Diet-Induced Microbiota Alterations
The basis of Bacteroides proliferation in response to fructans, a class of fructose-based dietary polysaccharides, is elucidated and gene sequences that distinguish species' metabolic capacity serve as potential biomarkers in microbiomic datasets to enable rational manipulation of the microbiota via diet. Expand
Understanding the Biological Rationale for the Diversity of Cellulose-directed Carbohydrate-binding Modules in Prokaryotic Enzymes*
The differential recognition of cell walls of diverse origin provides a biological rationale for the diversity of cellulose-directed CBMs that occur in cell wall hydrolases and conversely reveals the variety of cellulOSE microstructures in primary and secondary cell walls. Expand
The X6 "thermostabilizing" domains of xylanases are carbohydrate-binding modules: structure and biochemistry of the Clostridium thermocellum X6b domain.
The data showed that X6b, but not X6a, increased the activity of the enzyme against insoluble xylan and bound specifically to xylooligosaccharides and various xylans, and it is proposed that this and related modules be re-assigned as family 22 carbohydrate-binding modules. Expand
The pattern of xylan acetylation suggests xylan may interact with cellulose microfibrils as a twofold helical screw in the secondary plant cell wall of Arabidopsis thaliana
A twofold helical screw conformation of xylan is stable in interactions with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic cellulose faces and will also impact strategies to improve lignocellulose processing for biorefining and bioenergy. Expand
Xyloglucan Is Recognized by Carbohydrate-binding Modules That Interact with β-Glucan Chains*
It is shown that the C-terminal domain of the modular Clostridium thermocellum enzyme CtCel9D-Cel44A comprises a novel CBM (designated CBM44) that binds with equal affinity to cellulose and xyloglucan, and that accommodation of xylglucan side chains is a general feature of CBMs that bind to single cellulose chains. Expand
Glycan complexity dictates microbial resource allocation in the large intestine
It is shown that sharing the breakdown products of complex carbohydrates by key members of the microbiota, such as Bacteroides ovatus, is dependent on the complexity of the target glycan. Expand
Structural basis for nutrient acquisition by dominant members of the human gut microbiota
X-ray crystal structures of two functionally distinct SusCD complexes purified from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are presented and a general model for substrate translocation is derived to provide mechanistic insights into outer membrane nutrient import by members of the microbiota, an area of major importance for understanding human–microbiota symbiosis. Expand
Insights into the synthesis of lipopolysaccharide and antibiotics through the structures of two retaining glycosyltransferases from family GT4.
The crystal structure of both WaaG and AviGT4 is presented, which shows that both recognition of the donor substrate and the catalytic machinery is similar to other retaining GTs that display the GT-B fold. Expand