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Ultrasound-mediated transdermal drug delivery: mechanisms, scope, and emerging trends.
The use of ultrasound for the delivery of drugs to, or through, the skin is commonly known as sonophoresis or phonophoresis. The use of therapeutic and high frequencies of ultrasound (≥0.7MHz) forExpand
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Evaluation of solute permeation through the stratum corneum: lateral bilayer diffusion as the primary transport mechanism.
Solute permeation across human stratum corneum (SC) was examined in terms of the fundamental bilayer transport properties. A mathematical model was developed to describe the macroscopic SC permeationExpand
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Transdermal Drug Delivery Using Low-Frequency Sonophoresis
AbstractPurpose. Application of therapeutic ultrasound (frequency: 1–3 MHz and intensity: 0–2 W/cm2) enhances transdermal drug transport, although typically by a factor of less than 10. In thisExpand
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Ultrasound-mediated transdermal protein delivery
Transdermal drug delivery offers a potential method of drug administration. However, its application has been limited to a few low molecular weight compounds because of the extremely low permeabilityExpand
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Phenomenological theory of equilibrium thermodynamic properties and phase separation of micellar solutions
A detailed description and generalization of a recently developed theory, which provides analytic representations of the distribution of micellar species and the equilibrium thermodynamic propertiesExpand
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A mechanistic study of ultrasonically-enhanced transdermal drug delivery.
Although ultrasound has been shown to enhance the transdermal transport of a variety of drugs, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not clearly understood. In this paper, we evaluate theExpand
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An Investigation of the Role of Cavitation in Low-Frequency Ultrasound-Mediated Transdermal Drug Transport
AbstractPurpose. Low-frequency ultrasound (20 kHz) has been shown to increase the skin permeability to drugs, a phenomenon referred to as low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS). Many previous studies ofExpand
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Skin permeabilization for transdermal drug delivery: recent advances and future prospects
Introduction: Transdermal delivery has potential advantages over other routes of administration. It could reduce first-pass metabolism associated with oral delivery and is less painful thanExpand
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Molecular‐thermodynamic approach to predict micellization, phase behavior and phase separation of micellar solutions. I. Application to nonionic surfactants
We present a detailed description of a molecular‐thermodynamic approach which consists of blending a molecular model of micellization with a thermodynamic theory of phase behavior and phaseExpand
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Synergistic effect of low-frequency ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate on transdermal transport.
Application of low-frequency ultrasound has been shown to enhance transdermal transport of drugs (low-frequency sonophoresis). In this paper, we show that the efficacy of low-frequency ultrasound inExpand
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