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Hierarchical group dynamics in pigeon flocks
TLDR
The results suggest that hierarchical organization of group flight may be more efficient than an egalitarian one, at least for those flock sizes that permit regular pairwise interactions among group members, during which leader–follower relationships are consistently manifested.
Cultural innovation and transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees: evidence from field experiments
TLDR
Evidence from three complementary approaches in a group of oil-palm nut- (Elaeis guineensis) cracking chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea demonstrates a mechanism for the emergence of culture in wild chimpanzees.
Chimpanzee mothers at Bossou, Guinea carry the mummified remains of their dead infants
TLDR
Two further infant deaths at Bossou are recounted, observed over a decade after the original episode but with striking similarities, suggesting a phylogenetic continuity for a behavior that is poignant testament to the close mother-infant bond which extends across different primate taxa.
Chimpanzees Share Forbidden Fruit
TLDR
The only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees is reported, and it is proposed that hypotheses focussing on ‘food-for-sex and -grooming’ and ‘showing-off’ strategies plausibly account for observed sharing behaviours.
From Compromise to Leadership in Pigeon Homing
TLDR
Using high-precision GPS tracking of pairs of pigeons, it is found that if conflict between two birds' directional preferences was small, individuals averaged their routes, whereas if conflict rose over a critical threshold, either the pair split or one of the birds became the leader.
Use of numerical symbols by the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): Cardinals, ordinals, and the introduction of zero
TLDR
An adult female chimpanzee with previous training in the use of Arabic numerals 1–9 was introduced to the meaning of "zero" in the context of three different numerical tasks, suggesting that the level of abstraction characteristic of human numerical ability was not attained in the chimpanzee.
Familiar route loyalty implies visual pilotage in the homing pigeon.
TLDR
It is shown that homing pigeons (Columba livia) not only come to rely on highly stereotyped yet surprisingly inefficient routes within the local area but are attracted directly back to their individually preferred routes even when released from novel sites off-route.
Tool-composite reuse in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): archaeologically invisible steps in the technological evolution of early hominins?
TLDR
The first analysis of repeated reuse of the same tool-composites in wild chimpanzees is presented, which may reflect an ability to recognise the nut-cracker as a single tool, as well as discrimination of tool quality-effectiveness.
Emergence of a culture in wild chimpan-zees: education by master-apprenticeship
This chapter describes a series of field experiments aimed at investigating aspects of emergence of cultural traditions in wild chimpanzee communities. Long-term research at a number of sites in
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