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Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer
Cancers arise owing to the accumulation of mutations in critical genes that alter normal programmes of cell proliferation, differentiation and death. As the first stage of a systematic genome-wideExpand
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Glioma stem cells promote radioresistance by preferential activation of the DNA damage response
Ionizing radiation represents the most effective therapy for glioblastoma (World Health Organization grade IV glioma), one of the most lethal human malignancies, but radiotherapy remains onlyExpand
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The Somatic Genomic Landscape of Glioblastoma
We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs). We identify several novel mutatedExpand
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An Integrated Genomic Analysis of Human Glioblastoma Multiforme
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal type of brain cancer. To identify the genetic alterations in GBMs, we sequenced 20,661 protein coding genes, determined the presence ofExpand
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Stem cell-like glioma cells promote tumor angiogenesis through vascular endothelial growth factor.
Malignant gliomas are highly lethal cancers dependent on angiogenesis. Critical tumor subpopulations within gliomas share characteristics with neural stem cells. We examined the potential of stemExpand
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Altered Telomeres in Tumors with ATRX and DAXX Mutations
Chromosome tips seem to be maintained by an unusual mechanism in tumors that have mutations in chromatin remodeling genes. The proteins encoded by ATRX and DAXX participate in chromatin remodeling atExpand
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TERT promoter mutations occur frequently in gliomas and a subset of tumors derived from cells with low rates of self-renewal
Malignant cells, like all actively growing cells, must maintain their telomeres, but genetic mechanisms responsible for telomere maintenance in tumors have only recently been discovered. InExpand
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The Immune Landscape of Cancer
SUMMARY We performed an extensive immunogenomic analysis of more than 10,000 tumors comprising 33 diverse cancer types by utilizing data compiled by TCGA. Across cancer types, we identified sixExpand
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Bevacizumab plus irinotecan in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme.
PURPOSE The prognosis for patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme is poor, with a median survival of 3 to 6 months. We performed a phase II trial of bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody toExpand
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Frequent ATRX, CIC, FUBP1 and IDH1 mutations refine the classification of malignant gliomas
Mutations in the critical chromatin modifier ATRX and mutations in CIC and FUBP1, which are potent regulators of cell growth, have been discovered in specific subtypes of gliomas, the most commonExpand
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