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Phototransduction by Retinal Ganglion Cells That Set the Circadian Clock
TLDR
It is shown that retinal ganglion cells innervating the SCN are intrinsically photosensitive, and depolarized in response to light even when all synaptic input from rods and cones was blocked. Expand
Melanopsin-Containing Retinal Ganglion Cells: Architecture, Projections, and Intrinsic Photosensitivity
TLDR
It is shown that melanopsin is present in cell bodies, dendrites, and proximal axonal segments of a subset of rat RGCs, most likely the visual pigment of phototransducing R GCs that set the circadian clock and initiate other non–image-forming visual functions. Expand
Central projections of melanopsin‐expressing retinal ganglion cells in the mouse
TLDR
Staining patterns after monocular enucleation revealed that the projections of these cells are overwhelmingly crossed except for the projection to the SCN, which is bilaterally symmetrical, and that other ganglion cells do contribute at least some retinal input to these targets. Expand
Diminished Pupillary Light Reflex at High Irradiances in Melanopsin-Knockout Mice
TLDR
It is reported that in mice with the melanopsin gene ablated, RGCs retrograde-labeled from the suprachiasmatic nuclei were no longer intrinsically photosensitive, although their number, morphology, and projections were unchanged. Expand
Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion-Cell Photoreceptors: Cellular Diversity and Role in Pattern Vision
TLDR
It is reported that ipRGCs are more abundant and diverse than previously appreciated, project more widely within the brain, and can support spatial visual perception. Expand
Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age
TLDR
A new light-measurement strategy taking account of the complex photoreceptive inputs to these non-visual responses is proposed for use by researchers, and simple suggestions for artificial/architectural lighting are provided for regulatory authorities, lighting manufacturers, designers, and engineers. Expand
Morphology and mosaics of melanopsin‐expressing retinal ganglion cell types in mice
TLDR
Using enhanced immunohistochemistry, a fuller description of murine cell types expressing melanopigment is provided, their contribution to the plexuses of melanopsin dendrites, and mosaics formed by each type are provided. Expand
Melanopsin cells are the principal conduits for rod–cone input to non-image-forming vision
TLDR
It is indicated that light signals for irradiance detection are dissociated from pattern vision at the retinal ganglion cell level, and animals that cannot detect light for NIF functions are still capable of image formation. Expand
Form and Function of the M4 Cell, an Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cell Type Contributing to Geniculocortical Vision
TLDR
The first in-depth characterization of M4 cells is provided, including their structure, function, and central projections in mouse retina, which shows robust, sustained, synaptically driven ON responses and dendritic stratification in the ON sublamina of the inner plexiform layer. Expand
Synaptic influences on rat ganglion‐cell photoreceptors
TLDR
These extrinsic ipRGC light responses can explain some of the previously reported properties of circadian photoentrainment and other non‐image‐forming visual behaviours, and also extend their temporal bandpass to higher frequencies. Expand
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