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Mechanistic applicability domain classification of a local lymph node assay dataset for skin sensitization.
TLDR
It is shown that assignment to a reaction mechanistic domain is a critical first step in a strategic approach to understanding, ultimately on a quantitative basis, how chemical properties influence the potency of skin sensitizing chemicals. Expand
Allergic Contact Dermatitis
TLDR
This article seeks to consider skin sensitization and ACD in holistic fashion, bridging experimental observations with clinical disease and basic mechanisms with practical toxicology. Expand
Compilation of Historical Local Lymph Node Data for Evaluation of Skin Sensitization Alternative Methods
TLDR
A database of robust in vivo data to calibrate, evaluate, and eventually validate new approaches for skin sensitization testing is provided, which represents both the chemical and biologic diversity that is known to exist for chemical allergens and non‐allergens. Expand
Classification of contact allergens according to potency: proposals.
TLDR
It is concluded that although the LLNA is the method of choice for the determination of skin sensitisation potency for the purposes of categorisation, if data are already available from appropriate guinea pig tests then their judicious interpretation may provide information of value in determinations of potency and categorisation. Expand
Comparison of the local lymph node assay with the guinea-pig maximization test for the detection of a range of contact allergens.
TLDR
Investigating the correlation between LLNA results and those derived from the GPMT for 40 chemicals covering a range of chemical types and levels of skin sensitization potential supports the view that the LLNA can provide a rapid and objective screening test for strong sensitizers. Expand
A comparison of statistical approaches to the derivation of EC3 values from local lymph node assay dose responses
TLDR
Using a variety of statistical approaches to derive EC3 values from LLNA dose–response data for 10 chemicals, it has been demonstrated that simple linear interpolation between the values either side of the threefold stimulation index provides a robust assessment of the EC3 value without the need for recourse to more sophisticated statistical techniques. Expand
Dermal sensitization quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for fragrance ingredients.
TLDR
The principles of the recommended approach, detailed review of all the information used in the dermal sensitization QRA approach for fragrance ingredients and key conclusions for its use now and refinement in the future are presented. Expand
Contact allergenic potency: correlation of human and local lymph node assay data.
TLDR
The present investigations show that the LLNA can be used to provide quantitative estimates of relative skin sensitizing potency EC(3) values that correlate closely with NOELs established from human repeat patch testing and from the clinical experience. Expand
Local lymph node assay - validation, conduct and use in practice.
TLDR
It is concluded that the OECD Guideline as currently written embodies the necessary flexibility to permit conduct of the LLNA in a manner necessary to meet the varying needs of regulatory agencies and toxicologists around the world. Expand
Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects—2010
TLDR
It will take at least another 7–9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation and it was confirmed that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between sensitisers and non-sensitisers, ahead of 2017. Expand
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