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Is the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Over? Long‐Term Effects of In Utero Influenza Exposure in the Post‐1940 U.S. Population
- D. Almond
- MedicineJournal of Political Economy
- 1 August 2006
The 1918 influenza pandemic is used as a natural experiment to test the fetal origins hypothesis and indicates that investments in fetal health can increase human capital.
Human Capital Development Before Age Five
Killing Me Softly: The Fetal Origins Hypothesis.
Economists have expanded on this hypothesis, investigating a broader range of fetal shocks and circumstances and have found a wealth of later-life impacts on outcomes including test scores, educational attainment, and income, along with health.
The Costs of Low Birth Weight
This work compares the hospital costs, health at birth, and infant mortality rates between heavier and lighter infants from all twin pairs born in the United States and examines the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on health among singleton births.
Health Capital and the Prenatal Environment: The Effect of Ramadan Observance during Pregnancy
The results suggest that relatively mild prenatal exposures can have persistent effects in diurnal fasting and fetal health, and Muslims in Uganda and Iraq are 20 percent more likely to be disabled as adults if early pregnancy overlapped with Ramadan.
Estimating Marginal Returns to Medical Care: Evidence from At-Risk Newborns
- D. Almond, J. Doyle, Amanda E. Kowalski, Heidi L. Williams
- Medicine, EconomicsQuarterly Journal of Economics
- 1 December 2008
This work combines regression discontinuity estimates that compare health outcomes and medical treatment provision for newborns on either side of the very low birth weight threshold at 1500 grams to suggest the cost of saving a statistical life of a newborn with birth weight near 1500 grams is on the order of $550,000 in 2006 dollars.
Childhood Circumstances and Adult Outcomes: Act Ii
That prenatal events can have life-long consequences is now well established. Nevertheless, research on the fetal origins hypothesis is flourishing and has expanded to include the early childhood…
Inside the War on Poverty: The Impact of Food Stamps on Birth Outcomes
Abstract This paper evaluates the health impacts of a signature initiative of the War on Poverty: the introduction of the modern Food Stamp Program (FSP). Using variation in the month FSP began…
Long Run Impacts of Childhood Access to the Safety Net
A growing economics literature establishes a causal link between in utero shocks and health and human capital in adulthood. Most studies rely on extreme negative shocks such as famine and pandemics.…
Fetal Origins and Parental Responses
How do parental investments respond to health endowments at birth? Recent studies have combined insights from an earlier theoretical literature on household resource allocation with improved…