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The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation
We exploit differences in the mortality rates faced by European colonialists to estimate the effect of institutions on economic performance. Our argument is that Europeans adopted very differentExpand
Skills, Tasks and Technologies: Implications for Employment and Earnings
A central organizing framework of the voluminous recent literature studying changes in the returns to skills and the evolution of earnings inequality is what we refer to as the canonical model, whichExpand
Technical Change, Inequality, and the Labor Market
This essay discusses the effect of technical change on wage inequality. I argue that the behavior of wages and returns to schooling indicates that technical change has been skill-biased during theExpand
Why Do New Technologies Complement Skills? Directed Technical Change and Wage Inequality
This paper considers an economy where skilled and unskilled workers use different technologies. The rate of improvement of each technology is determined by a profit-maximizing R&D sector. When thereExpand
Directed Technical Change
For many problems in macroeconomics, development economics, labor economics, and international trade, whether technical change is biased towards particular factors is of central importance. ThisExpand
Institutions as the Fundamental Cause of Long-Run Growth
This paper develops the empirical and theoretical case that differences in economic institutions are the fundamental cause of differences in economic development. We first document the empiricalExpand
Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of the Modern World Income Distribution
A method and apparatus for the removal of cakes from an open filter press is proposed which involves directing one or more jets of a pressure fluid towards the chamber to impinge on an edge of theExpand
Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy
This book develops a framework for analyzing the creation and consolidation of democracy. Different social groups prefer different political institutions because of the way they allocate politicalExpand
The Environment and Directed Technical Change
This paper shows that when inputs are sufficiently substitutable, sustainable growth can be achieved with temporary taxes/subsidies that redirect innovation toward clean inputs, and optimal policy involves both "carbon taxes" and research subsidies. Expand
Disease and Development: The Effect of Life Expectancy on Economic Growth
We exploit the major international health improvements from the 1940s to estimate the effect of life expectancy on economic performance. We construct predicted mortality using preinterventionExpand