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Gait abnormalities in children with cerebral palsy are the consequence of contractures across joints, muscle spasticity, and phasically inappropriate muscle action. Though abnormalities involving one of the major joints of the lower extremity will usually have consequences on the function of the other joints, it is possible to recognize certain primary(More)
The purpose of this study was to quantify the gait of subjects receiving two injections of either botulinum A toxin or saline vehicle into the gastrocnemius muscle(s). The study group consisted of cerebral palsy patients who walked with an equinus gait pattern. This study was a randomized, double-blinded, parallel clinical trial of 20 subjects. All were(More)
One of the problems facing the clinician is the differentiation between functional and structural limb-length inequality. This study investigated 20 subjects (mean age, 9.0 +/- 3.9 years) with documented limb-length inequalities to determine the magnitude of discrepancies that result in gait abnormalities. The subjects were asked to walk on an 8-m walkway(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine whether surface and internal fine-wire electromyography electrodes had an effect on gait. The subjects for the experiments were 38 children with the spastic diplegic type of cerebral palsy. The children were filmed using the high-speed cinematographic technique while they walked (a) with no electrodes(More)
The Ely Test (or Duncan-Ely test) has been accepted as a clinical tool to assess rectus femoris spasticity by passively flexing the knee rapidly while the patient lies prone in a relaxed state. In this retrospective review, patients' dynamic knee range of motion (ROM) during gait and an electromyogram (EMG) were compared with the results of the Ely test.(More)
A dynamic knee-brace system (DKBS) has been designed which provides stance phase stability and swing phase freedom. A wrap-spring clutch controls knee flexion. Clutch optimization was performed minimizing clutch length. Kinematic tests on a normal subject using the DKBS document nearly normal dynamic knee flexion during swing (38 degrees versus 53 degrees(More)
Two theories concerning the effects of surgical release of the proximal origins of the rectus femoris in spastic patients are (1) that release reduces hip flexion contracture and lumbar lordosis and diminishes crouch, and (2) that release primarily enhances early swing-phase knee flexion. A series of eight patients with pre-operative electromyography and(More)