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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and antiretroviral activity of ritonavir (Norvir) and saquinavir (Invirase) combination therapy in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN A multicenter, randomized, open-label clinical trial. SETTING Seven HIV research units in the USA and Canada. PATIENTS A group of 141 adults with HIV infection, CD4 T lymphocyte counts(More)
UNLABELLED Combination antiretroviral therapy with ritonavir and saquinavir has established potent and durable activity on plasma viremia. CNS HIV infection may be sequestered from drug therapy that does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Penetration of these protease inhibitors into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and CSF HIV RNA levels on such therapy(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel psycho-educational intervention intended to increase patients' medication preparedness and treatment adherence skills before initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Sixty-three HIV-positive patients not currently on antiretroviral therapy participated in a randomized controlled trial of a(More)
In a study of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-uninfected African prostitutes, 83 (67%) of 124 seroconverted to HIV-1. Oral contraceptive use (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-8.6; P less than .03), genital ulcers (mean annual episodes, 1.32 +/- 0.55 in seroconverting women vs. 0.48 +/- 0.21 in seronegative women; P less(More)
Oligodeoxynucleotides containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG ODN) act as potent Th1-like immune enhancers with many antigens in animal models. We have extended these observations to the first clinical evaluation of the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of CPG 7909 when added to a commercial HBV vaccine. In a randomized, double-blind phase I dose(More)
BACKGROUND Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection eventually develops in most patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This infection results in substantial morbidity and reduces survival by about six months. METHODS We conducted two randomized, double-blind, multicenter trials of daily prophylactic treatment with either(More)
This study investigated the effect of single-dose and steady-state lopinavir/ritonavir on the exposure to fexofenadine, as a measure of P-glycoprotein activity. Sixteen volunteers (8 women) received single-dose oral fexofenadine 120 mg alone, in combination with single-dose ritonavir 100 mg or lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg (randomized 1:1, stratified by(More)
Condom use was assessed after a programme of education about the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and a condom distribution programme in a well-characterised prostitute population in Nairobi. Women received their education at group meetings (barazas) and at individual counselling sessions during which they were given the results of serological tests for(More)
BACKGROUND Many studies have explored the role of "classic" sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in determining the pattern of HIV epidemics. However, the many different STDs may contribute in different ways, at different magnitudes. GOAL To review available studies on the bidirectional interactions of HIV and STDs to explore the extent of current(More)