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The revision of the subcellular model of hormone action is described, with an incorporation of potential autocrine mechanisms. A general overview of available assay methodologies considers the major disadvantages of earlier methods and describes in detail the current methodologies (sucrose gradient analysis, dextran-coated charcoal assays, ER-EIA, ERICA). A(More)
The guanidine hydrochloride- (GuHCl-) induced unfolding and refolding of a recombinant domain of bovine microsomal cytochrome b(5) containing the first 104 amino acid residues has been characterized by both transient and equilibrium spectrophotometric methods. The soluble domain is reversibly unfolded and the equilibrium reaction may be monitored by changes(More)
One-dimensional and two-dimensional 1H-NMR methods and paramagnetic difference spectroscopy have defined cation binding domains on the surface of the tryptic fragment of microsomal cytochrome b5. The addition of tris(ethylenediamine) chromium(III) [Cr(en)3(3+)] to solutions of ferricytochrome b5 reveals at least three distinct sites on the surface of the(More)
The DNA sequence of bovine microsomal cytochrome b5 has been amplified from a liver cDNA library using a polymerase chain reaction. The amplified cDNA when cloned into plasmids that support the high-level production of cytochrome b5 in E.coli leads to protein overexpression and results in cell colonies bearing a strong red colouration. Using cassette(More)
The assignment of proton resonances in both redox states of a heme protein is necessary for the evaluation of pseudocontact shift data. Many new assignments are presented here for cytochrome b5, particularly in the paramagnetic oxidised state, thereby allowing both the calculation of electronic g-tensor values with the magnetic axis orientation and a(More)
Two-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy is used to examine the structure and mobility of cytochrome b5 in solution. The assignment of many residues and the interpretation of nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) in both redox states allow definition of secondary structural elements. Comparison with X-ray diffraction data shows that differences between crystal and(More)
The solution structure of a recombinant form of cytochrome b5 containing 104 amino acid residues has been determined using three-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Using protein enriched in 15N the majority of the polypeptide backbone resonances have been assigned to reveal numerous chemical shift differences to those reported previously for smaller fragments of(More)
The refolding and unfolding kinetics of a soluble domain of apocytochrome b5 extending from residue 1 to 104 have been characterized using stopped flow and equilibrium-based fluorescence methods. The isolated apoprotein unfolds reversibly in the presence of GuHCl. From cooperative unfolding curves, the conformational stability (Delta G(uw)), in the absence(More)
The nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of alpha-conotoxin SI has been determined at pH 4.2. The 36 lowest energy structures show that alpha-conotoxin SI exists in a single major solution conformation and is stabilized by six hydrogen bonds. Comparisons are made between the SI solution structure and the solution and crystal structures of(More)
Chymopapain M, the monothiol cysteine proteinase component of the chymopapain band eluted after chymopapains A and B in cation-exchange chromatography, was isolated from the dried latex of Carica papaya and characterized by kinetic and chromatographic analysis. This late-eluted chymopapain is probably a component of the cysteine proteinase fraction of(More)