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Doubly robust estimation combines a form of outcome regression with a model for the exposure (i.e., the propensity score) to estimate the causal effect of an exposure on an outcome. When used individually to estimate a causal effect, both outcome regression and propensity score methods are unbiased only if the statistical model is correctly specified. The(More)
This study examines the timing of menarche in relation to infant-feeding methods, specifically addressing the potential effects of soy isoflavone exposure through soy-based infant feeding. Subjects were participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and their children have been followed(More)
We derive and compare the operating characteristics of hierarchical and square array-based testing algorithms for case identification in the presence of testing error. The operating characteristics investigated include efficiency (i.e., expected number of tests per specimen) and error rates (i.e., sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive(More)
That conditioning on a common effect of exposure and outcome may cause selection, or collider-stratification, bias is not intuitive. We provide two hypothetical examples to convey concepts underlying bias due to conditioning on a collider. In the first example, fever is a common effect of influenza and consumption of a tainted egg-salad sandwich. In the(More)
Although Berkson's bias is widely recognized in the epidemiologic literature, it remains underappreciated as a model of both selection bias and bias due to missing data. Simple causal diagrams and 2 × 2 tables illustrate how Berkson's bias connects to collider bias and selection bias more generally, and show the strong analogies between Berksonian selection(More)
Positivity, or the experimental treatment assignment assumption, requires that there be both exposed and unexposed participants at every combination of the values of the observed confounders in the population under study. Positivity is essential for inference but is often overlooked in practice by epidemiologists. This issue of the Journal includes 2(More)
The applied literature on propensity scores has often cited the c-statistic as a measure of the ability of the propensity score to control confounding. However, a high c-statistic in the propensity model is neither necessary nor sufficient for control of confounding. Moreover, use of the c-statistic as a guide in constructing propensity scores may result in(More)
SETTING Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the implementation of three models of provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing (CT) for tuberculosis (TB) patients. METHODS HIV CT was offered to all TB patients aged > or =18 months registered for treatment at three project clinics between August 2004 and June 2005. HIV CT was(More)
HIV-1 and CMV are important pathogens transmitted via breastfeeding. Furthermore, perinatal CMV transmission may impact growth and disease progression in HIV-exposed infants. Although maternal antiretroviral therapy reduces milk HIV-1 RNA load and postnatal transmission, its impact on milk CMV load is unclear. We examined the relationship between milk CMV(More)
Whether use of various types of hormonal contraception (HC) affect risk of HIV acquisition is a critical question for women's health. For this systematic review, we identified 22 studies published by January 15, 2014 which met inclusion criteria; we classified thirteen studies as having severe methodological limitations, and nine studies as "informative but(More)