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Defects in myosin VIIa, harmonin (a PDZ domain protein), cadherin 23, protocadherin 15 and sans (a putative scaffolding protein), underlie five forms of Usher syndrome type I (USH1). Mouse mutants for all these proteins exhibit disorganization of their hair bundle, which is the mechanotransduction receptive structure of the inner ear sensory cells, the(More)
Several lines of evidence indicate that very large G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (Vlgr1) makes up the ankle links that connect the stereocilia of hair cells at their base. Here, we show that the transmembrane protein usherin, the putative transmembrane protein vezatin, and the PDZ (postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/zona occludens-1) domain-containing(More)
Usher syndrome represents the association of a hearing impairment with retinitis pigmentosa and is the most frequent cause of deaf-blindness in humans. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait which is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Some patients show abnormal organization of microtubules in the axoneme of their photoreceptors cells(More)
Cadherin 23 is required for normal development of the sensory hair bundle, and recent evidence suggests it is a component of the tip links, filamentous structures thought to gate the hair cells' mechano-electrical transducer channels. Antibodies against unique peptide epitopes were used to study the properties of cadherin 23 and its spatio-temporal(More)
The planar polarity and staircase-like pattern of the hair bundle are essential to the mechanoelectrical transduction function of inner ear sensory cells. Mutations in genes encoding myosin VIIa, harmonin, cadherin 23, protocadherin 15 or sans cause Usher syndrome type I (USH1, characterized by congenital deafness, vestibular dysfunction and retinitis(More)
Prelingual non-syndromic (isolated) deafness is the most frequent hereditary sensory defect. In >80% of the cases, the mode of transmission is autosomal recessive. To date, 14 loci have been identified for the recessive forms (DFNB loci). For two of them, DFNB1 and DFNB2, the genes responsible have been characterized; they encode connexin 26 and myosin(More)
CPEB (cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein) is an important regulator of translation in oocytes and neurons. Although previous studies of CPEB in late Xenopus oocytes involve the eIF4E-binding protein maskin as the key factor for the repression of maternal mRNA, a second mechanism must exist, since maskin is absent earlier in oogenesis. Using(More)
Usher syndrome type IIa (USH2A) combines moderate to severe congenital hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa. It is the most common genetic form of USH. USH2A encodes usherin, which was previously defined as a basement membrane protein. A much larger USH2A transcript predicted to encode a transmembrane (TM) isoform was recently reported. Here, we(More)
The mechanotransducer channels of auditory hair cells are gated by tip-links, oblique filaments that interconnect the stereocilia of the hair bundle. Tip-links stretch from the tips of stereocilia in the short and middle rows to the sides of neighboring, taller stereocilia. They are made of cadherin-23 and protocadherin-15, products of the Usher syndrome(More)
Although the cochlea is an amplifier and a remarkably sensitive and finely tuned detector of sounds, it also produces conspicuous mechanical and electrical waveform distortions. These distortions reflect nonlinear mechanical interactions within the cochlea. By allowing one tone to suppress another (masking effect), they contribute to speech intelligibility.(More)