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The neurotrophin BDNF has been shown to modulate long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 hippocampal synapses. Mutants in the BDNF receptor gene trkB and antibodies to its second receptor p75NTR have been used to determine the receptors and cells involved in this response. Inhibition of p75NTR does not detectably reduce LTP or affect(More)
There is great interest in discovering new targets for pain therapy since current methods of analgesia are often only partially successful. Although protein kinase C (PKC) enhances nociceptor function, it is not known which PKC isozymes contribute. Here, we show that epinephrine-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and acetic acid-associated(More)
The mu opioid receptor, MOR, displays spontaneous agonist-independent (basal) G protein coupling in vitro. To determine whether basal MOR signaling contributes to narcotic dependence, antagonists were tested for intrinsic effects on basal MOR signaling in vitro and in vivo, before and after morphine pretreatment. Intrinsic effects of MOR ligands were tested(More)
To permit rapid optical control of brain activity, we have engineered multiple lines of transgenic mice that express the light-activated cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in subsets of neurons. Illumination of ChR2-positive neurons in brain slices produced photocurrents that generated action potentials within milliseconds and with precisely timed(More)
The espins are actin-binding and -bundling proteins localized to parallel actin bundles. The 837-amino-acid "espin" of Sertoli cell-spermatid junctions (ectoplasmic specializations) and the 253-amino-acid "small espin" of brush border microvilli are splice isoforms that share a C-terminal 116-amino-acid actin-bundling module but contain different N termini.(More)
We present genetic evidence that integrins regulate epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during organogenesis. Mice with a mutation in the alpha8 gene do not express the integrin alpha8 beta1 and exhibit profound deficits in kidney morphogenesis. In wild-type animals, inductive interactions between the ureteric epithelium and metanephric mesenchyme are(More)
Several of the actions of ethanol are mediated by gamma-aminobutyrate type A (GABA(A)) receptors. Here we demonstrated that mutant mice lacking protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) were more sensitive than wild-type littermates to the acute behavioral effects of ethanol and other drugs that allosterically activate GABA(A) receptors. GABA(A) receptors in(More)
Mechanosensory neurons (SNs) of Aplysia form synapses in culture with some targets (L7), but not others (L11), even when a SN is plated with both targets. We examined whether branch-specific net export of mRNA encoding synapse-specific molecules might contribute to branch-specific synapse formation. Single-cell RT-PCR was used to assay levels of mRNA(More)
A method for the determination of the degree of deacetylation (DDA) of chitosan by 1H NMR spectroscopy has been formally validated. Chitosans with DDA ranging from 48 to 100% have been used for the validation. The method is found to be simple, rapid and more precise than other known techniques like IR or titration for %DDA measurements. The precision,(More)
The ubiquitous intracellular Ca(2+) sensor calmodulin (CaM) regulates numerous proteins involved in cellular signaling of G protein-coupled receptors, but most known interactions between GPCRs and CaM occur downstream of the receptor. Using a sequence-based motif search, we have identified the third intracellular loop of the opioid receptor family as a(More)