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To permit rapid optical control of brain activity, we have engineered multiple lines of transgenic mice that express the light-activated cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in subsets of neurons. Illumination of ChR2-positive neurons in brain slices produced photocurrents that generated action potentials within milliseconds and with precisely timed(More)
The neurotrophin BDNF has been shown to modulate long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 hippocampal synapses. Mutants in the BDNF receptor gene trkB and antibodies to its second receptor p75NTR have been used to determine the receptors and cells involved in this response. Inhibition of p75NTR does not detectably reduce LTP or affect(More)
There is great interest in discovering new targets for pain therapy since current methods of analgesia are often only partially successful. Although protein kinase C (PKC) enhances nociceptor function, it is not known which PKC isozymes contribute. Here, we show that epinephrine-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and acetic acid-associated(More)
The espins are actin-binding and -bundling proteins localized to parallel actin bundles. The 837-amino-acid "espin" of Sertoli cell-spermatid junctions (ectoplasmic specializations) and the 253-amino-acid "small espin" of brush border microvilli are splice isoforms that share a C-terminal 116-amino-acid actin-bundling module but contain different N termini.(More)
Mechanosensory neurons (SNs) of Aplysia form synapses in culture with some targets (L7), but not others (L11), even when a SN is plated with both targets. We examined whether branch-specific net export of mRNA encoding synapse-specific molecules might contribute to branch-specific synapse formation. Single-cell RT-PCR was used to assay levels of mRNA(More)
A novel approach to provide, thermally sensitive neutral solutions based on chitosan/polyol salt combinations is described. These formulations possess a physiological pH and can be held liquid below room temperature for encapsulating living cells and therapeutic proteins; they form monolithic gels at body temperature. When injected in vivo the liquid(More)
Garter snakes respond to purified chemoattractants derived from prey. The specific binding sites for one of these chemoattractants, ES20, in the vomeronasal organ was saturable and reversible. Binding sites for ES20 were abolished by heating or greatly reduced by Pronase digestion. ES20 chemoattractant activity and receptor binding required Ca2+. Binding of(More)
Snake vomeronasal receptor neurons in slice preparations were studied using the patch-clamp technique in the conventional and nystatin-perforated whole-cell configurations. The mean resting potential was approximately -70 mV; the average input resistance was 3 GOmega. Neurons required current injection of only 1-10 pA to display a variety of spiking(More)
Bacterial blight of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae ( Xoo) (Ishyama) Dye, is one of the serious diseases prevalent throughout Asia. In a previous study, a resistance ( R) locus was transferred from the tetraploid wild rice Oryza minuta to the cultivated rice species, Oryza sativa L. Here, we report the fine genetic mapping of the R locus,(More)
Full-length cDNA clones encoding deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and eucaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) have been isolated from a cDNA expression library prepared from tomato leaves (Lycopersicon esculentum, cv. Match) exposed to environmental stress. DHS mediates the first of two enzymatic reactions that activate eIF-5A by converting a conserved lysine(More)