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The neurotrophin BDNF has been shown to modulate long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 hippocampal synapses. Mutants in the BDNF receptor gene trkB and antibodies to its second receptor p75NTR have been used to determine the receptors and cells involved in this response. Inhibition of p75NTR does not detectably reduce LTP or affect(More)
To permit rapid optical control of brain activity, we have engineered multiple lines of transgenic mice that express the light-activated cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in subsets of neurons. Illumination of ChR2-positive neurons in brain slices produced photocurrents that generated action potentials within milliseconds and with precisely timed(More)
The sequencing of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome provides a unique opportunity to investigate the function and evolution of neural genes. The neurobiology of sea urchins is of particular interest because they have a close phylogenetic relationship with chordates, yet a distinctive pentaradiate body plan and unusual neural organization. Orthologues(More)
The mu opioid receptor, MOR, displays spontaneous agonist-independent (basal) G protein coupling in vitro. To determine whether basal MOR signaling contributes to narcotic dependence, antagonists were tested for intrinsic effects on basal MOR signaling in vitro and in vivo, before and after morphine pretreatment. Intrinsic effects of MOR ligands were tested(More)
The espins are actin-binding and -bundling proteins localized to parallel actin bundles. The 837-amino-acid "espin" of Sertoli cell-spermatid junctions (ectoplasmic specializations) and the 253-amino-acid "small espin" of brush border microvilli are splice isoforms that share a C-terminal 116-amino-acid actin-bundling module but contain different N termini.(More)
Mechanosensory neurons (SNs) of Aplysia form synapses in culture with some targets (L7), but not others (L11), even when a SN is plated with both targets. We examined whether branch-specific net export of mRNA encoding synapse-specific molecules might contribute to branch-specific synapse formation. Single-cell RT-PCR was used to assay levels of mRNA(More)
We present genetic evidence that integrins regulate epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during organogenesis. Mice with a mutation in the alpha8 gene do not express the integrin alpha8 beta1 and exhibit profound deficits in kidney morphogenesis. In wild-type animals, inductive interactions between the ureteric epithelium and metanephric mesenchyme are(More)
Many cytokines activate two highly homologous Stat proteins, 5a and 5b. Mice deficient in both genes lack all growth hormone and prolactin functions but retain functions associated with cytokines such as erythropoietin. Here, we demonstrate that, while lymphoid development is normal, Stat5a/b mutant peripheral T cells are profoundly deficient in(More)
We report the sequence and analysis of the 814-megabase genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a model for developmental and systems biology. The sequencing strategy combined whole-genome shotgun and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences. This use of BAC clones, aided by a pooling strategy, overcame difficulties associated with(More)
The ubiquitous intracellular Ca(2+) sensor calmodulin (CaM) regulates numerous proteins involved in cellular signaling of G protein-coupled receptors, but most known interactions between GPCRs and CaM occur downstream of the receptor. Using a sequence-based motif search, we have identified the third intracellular loop of the opioid receptor family as a(More)