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Recent studies in invertebrates indicate that a rapid genomic response to neuronal stimulation has a critical role in long-term changes in synaptic efficacy. Because several of the genes (immediately early genes; IEGs) that respond rapidly to growth factor stimulation of vertebrate cells in vitro are also activated by neuronal stimulation in vivo, attention(More)
Administration of the convulsants pentylenetetrazole (Metrazole) or picrotoxin to rats caused a dramatic increase in mRNAs of four putative transcription factor genes, zif/268, c-jun, jun-B, and c-fos, in neurons of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, as well as other areas of the cerebral cortex, including pyriform cortex and cingulate cortex. The increase(More)
Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM; EC is a copper-, molecular oxygen-, and ascorbate-dependent enzyme which catalyzes the COOH-terminal amidation of bioactive peptides. Expression of PAM in the adult male rat anterior pituitary was evaluated after experimental manipulation of thyroid status. Levels of PAM mRNA increased 4- to(More)
Studies describing the structures of the M1, M2 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) genes and the genetic elements that control their expression are reviewed. In particular, we focus on the role of the neuron-restrictive silencer element/restriction element-1 (NRSE/RE-1) in the regulation of the M4 mAChR gene. The NRSE/RE-1 was first(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that several transcription factor genes are rapidly activated by neuronal stimulation. For example, we have found that prolonged and repeated seizure activity produced by administration of chemical convulsants induces a rapid and transient increase in mRNA levels of four immediate early genes in rat brain. These genes,(More)
Neuronal cell-specific expression of the rat m4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) is regulated by a silencer element. A likely mediator of this silencing is the neuron-restrictive silencer element/repressor element 1 (NRSE/RE1), which is present 837 base pairs (bp) upstream from the transcription initiation site of the m4 mAChR gene (Wood, I. C.,(More)
The hippocampal formation consists of the dentate gyrus, the hippocampus proper, the subicular complex and the entorhinal cortex. This structure is a major component of the medial temporal lobe, which is essential for memory formation. We investigated the expression of Zif268, a transcription factor regulated by physiological synaptic activity, in the(More)
Specialized lambda-transducing phages that carry the Escherichia coli genes ptsH, ptsI, crr, cysM, and cysA have been isolated, and the genes were subcloned in plasmid pBR322. Subcloning and restriction mapping data gave the following clockwise order of genes located at about 52 min on the E. coli genetic map: lig, cysK, ptsH, ptsI, crr, cysM, cysA. The(More)
We describe here the characterization of the rat m4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gene and the identification of its regulatory region. Two 5'-noncoding exons are located approximately 5 kilobases upstream from the coding exon, and at least two alternatively spliced variants of m4 mRNA are expressed in the neuronal cell line PC12D. There are two(More)