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This paper summarises a number of studies of human strength in tasks of static whole body exertion. Measurements were made using a transducer bar which allowed the simultaneous recording of the vertical and horizontal components of any force applied to it by the subject. In each experimental condition, each subject exerted his or herself in all directions(More)
A technique for the measurement of relaxed standing postures, called the Posturegram, is described. The method is inexpensive, non-invasive and is suited for clinical use. Recording is done by photography. The present study examines features of standing that were exhibited by 42 normal subjects, based upon the disposition of landmarks in the coronal and(More)
Maximal static strengths were determined for one-handed exertions in all directions in the fore and aft plane. Data from 12 males and 10 females (mean age 30.7 yrs, standard deviation (SD) = 8.9 yrs, n = 22) were obtained with handle heights of 1.0 and 1.75 m. Twelve of the subjects also performed two-handed exertions at the same handle heights. The ratio(More)
Dynamic lifting strength was assessed at lift velocities ranging from 0 to 1 m.s-1 using a hydrodynamometer in which the viscous resistance to motion could be preset. Nine men and nine women performed one- and two-handed dynamic exertions against low, medium, and high resistances. The subjects were required to lift as forcefully and as fast as possible from(More)
Two experiments were carried out to investigate the mechanisms by which both translational forces and a turning moment in the horizontal plane at the foot-base are transmitted by the lower limb during laterally directed manual exertions. The first used a force plate to measure forces and moments exerted by the feet separately or together in order to(More)
This study presents a protocol for assessment of manual strength over all directions in three dimensions. The reliability and validity of the protocol was tested on four male subjects. They performed one-handed maximal exertions overthe entire sphere of exertion at hand heights of 1.0 and 1.75 m and at a horizontal foot distance of 0.5 m from the centre of(More)
A triaxial force measurement system has been developed to allow the measurement of whole-body manual force exertions in the three axes of the Cartesian system. The design of the system precludes the exertion of torques, thus enabling a description of the linear forces that an individual can exert in three dimensions. Forces are measured independently for(More)
Static lifting strengths of nine men and nine women were measured at six heights from just above the floor to just above the head, at two horizontal reaches from the mid-ankles (equal to the elbow to grip and acromium to grip distances), in the sagittal plane and also at 45 degrees and 90 degrees to the right for two-handed exertions and at 45 degrees and(More)
The purpose of the experiment was to examine how force, speed and power output of horizontal pulling with the upper limb was affected by the height of pull. Fourteen seated male subjects made horizontal pulls with maximal effort at eye, shoulder and elbow level from their positions of full reach when the trunk and shoulder girdle were rigidly constrained.(More)