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The regenerative growth in culture of the axons of two giant identified neurons from the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was observed using video-enhanced contrast-differential interference contrast microscopy. This technique allowed the visualization in living cells of the membranous organelles of the growth cone. Elongation of axonal(More)
Fast axonal transport of protein was examined in regenerating goldfish optic axons after a lesion of either the optic tract or optic nerve, which revealed changes in the original intact optic axon segments or in the newly regenerated axon segments, respectively. In animals killed either 6 or 24 hr after injection of 3H-proline into the eye, labeling of(More)
Growth cones of Aplysia californica neurons were observed with video-enhanced contrast-differential interference contrast (VEC-DIC) microscopy as they turned at a border between poly-L-lysine-treated and untreated glass. Growth cones that turned generally developed 2 distinct active areas of filopodial and veil formation, much in the way of growth cones(More)
After the goldfish optic nerve was crushed, the total amount of protein in the nerve decreased by about 45% within 1 week as the axons degenerated, began to recover between 2 and 5 weeks as axonal regeneration occurred, and had returned to nearly normal by 12 weeks. Corresponding changes in the relative amounts of some individual proteins were investigated(More)
The surfaces on which neurons grow greatly affect neurite elongation, but it is unclear how substrates influence the events within the growth cone that bring about elongation. Neurite elongation by Aplysia californica neurons in culture occurs through a series of transformations of the structures of the growth cone (Goldberg and Burmeister, J. Cell Biol.,(More)
The growth cone at the front of a growing neurite often has F-actin-rich structures--digitate filopodia and sheet-like veils and lamellipodia--whose protrusion advances the leading edge. Microtubules and other cytoplasmic constituents later fill the protruded area, transforming it into new neuritic length. Growth can be initiated from an axon by transecting(More)
How is axonal transport in regenerating neurons affected by contact with their synaptic target? We investigated whether removing the target (homotopic) lobe of the goldfish optic tectum altered the incorporation of 3H-proline into fast axonally transported proteins in the regenerating optic nerve. Regeneration was induced either by an optic tract lesion (to(More)
The time course of the cell body reaction to axotomy was determined in goldfish retinal ganglion cells by measuring cell body size and the amount of labelled protein conveyed by fast axonal transport to the optic tectum, both of which increase during regeneration of the optic axons. Following a single testing lesion of the optic nerve, the regenerating(More)