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A comprehensive understanding of how natural and anthropogenic variation in habitat influences populations requires long-term information on how such variation affects survival and dispersal throughout the annual cycle. Gray jays Perisoreus canadensis are widespread boreal resident passerines that use cached food to survive over the winter and to begin(More)
Since the demise of the Ada mandate on April 29, 1997, little has been said about the debate that raged in the mid-1990s comparing the merits of C++ versus Ada [1] within the weapons system world. Many questions remain such as: " Has the defense community made a wholesale move to competing languages like C++ and technologies like Java? " " Is the migration(More)
The island rule refers to the tendency of small vertebrates to become larger when isolated on islands and the frequent dwarfing of large forms. It implies genetic control, and a necessary linkage, of size and body-mass differences between insular and mainland populations. To examine the island rule, we compared body size and mass of gray jays (Perisoreus(More)
Food caching is a behavioural strategy used by a wide range of animals to store food for future use. When food is stored, it is susceptible to environmental conditions that can lead to spoilage via microbial proliferation or physical and chemical processes. Given that the nutrition gained from consuming cached food will almost always be less than consuming(More)