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Medulloblastoma encompasses a collection of clinically and molecularly diverse tumour subtypes that together comprise the most common malignant childhood brain tumour. These tumours are thought to arise within the cerebellum, with approximately 25% originating from granule neuron precursor cells (GNPCs) after aberrant activation of the Sonic Hedgehog(More)
The cerebellar rhombic lip and telencephalic cortical hem are dorsally located germinal zones which contribute substantially to neuronal diversity in the CNS, but the mechanisms that drive neurogenesis within these zones are ill defined. Using genetic fate mapping in wild-type and Lmx1a(-/-) mice, we demonstrate that Lmx1a is a critical regulator of(More)
During embryogenesis, the isthmic organizer, a well-described signaling center at the junction of the mid-hindbrain, establishes the cerebellar territory along the anterior/posterior axis of the neural tube. Mechanisms specifying distinct populations within the early cerebellar anlage are less defined. Using a newly developed gene expression map of the(More)
Choroid plexus (CP) produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the central nervous system (CNS), but little is known about the mechanisms underlying development of this important tissue. CP forms in the hindbrain (4th ventricle), diencephalon (3rd ventricle) and dorsomedial telencephalon bilaterally (lateral ventricles). All of these sites lie at or near the(More)
Cancer stem cells are remarkably similar to normal stem cells: both self-renew, are multipotent and express common surface markers, for example, prominin 1 (PROM1, also called CD133). What remains unclear is whether cancer stem cells are the direct progeny of mutated stem cells or more mature cells that reacquire stem cell properties during tumour(More)
Borders are important as they demarcate developing tissue into distinct functional units. A key challenge is the discovery of mechanisms that can convert morphogen gradients into tissue borders. While mechanisms that produce ultrasensitive cellular responses provide a solution, how extracellular morphogens drive such mechanisms remains poorly understood.(More)
The roof plate is a well known signaling center in CNS development, but its roles in the developing telencephalon and the common holoprosencephaly (HPE) malformation have been uncertain. Using cellular ablations in mice, we show that roof plate cell loss causes failed midline induction and HPE in the dorsal telencephalon. This morphologic phenotype is(More)
Adrenal medullary chromaffin cell culture systems are extremely useful for the study of excitation-secretion coupling in an in vitro setting. This protocol illustrates the method used to dissect the adrenals and then isolate the medullary region by stripping away the adrenal cortex. The digestion of the medulla into single chromaffin cells is then(More)
Conversions of signaling gradients into sharp "all-or-none" borders are fundamental to tissue and organismal development. However, whether such conversions can be meaningfully reduced to dissociated cells in culture has been uncertain. Here we describe ultrasensitivity, the phenomenon equivalent to an all-or-none response, in dissociated neural precursor(More)