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Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a significant fraction of ambient tropospheric aerosol and a detailed knowledge of the formation, properties and transformation of SOA is therefore required to evaluate its impact on atmospheric processes, climate and human health. The chemical and physical processes associated with SOA formation are complex and(More)
Cdc42 plays important roles in cytoskeleton organization, cell cycle progression, signal transduction, and vesicle trafficking. Overactive Cdc42 has been implicated in the pathology of cancers, immune diseases, and neuronal disorders. Therefore, Cdc42 inhibitors would be useful in probing molecular pathways and could have therapeutic potential. Previous(More)
The basal (constitutive) activity of G protein-coupled receptors allows for the measurement of inverse agonist activity. Some competitive antagonists turn into inverse agonists under conditions where receptors are constitutively active. In contrast, neutral antagonists have no inverse agonist activity, and they block both agonist and inverse agonist(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the pattern of pelvic girdle muscle activation in normal subjects and hemiparetic patients while stepping and maintaining standing balance. DESIGN Group comparison. METHOD Seventeen patients who had regained the ability to walk after a single hemiparetic stroke were studied together with 16 normal controls. Median interval between(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the recovery of neurophysiological responses to perturbation of standing balance after stroke. METHODS Surface electromyography (EMG) from hip abductors and adductors and ground reaction forces (GRF) were measured in response to 20 sideways pushes applied to the pelvis by a linear motor. Each subject's data from pushes in each(More)
Recent evidence indicates that agonist ligands of G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) can activate different signaling systems. Such "agonist-directed" signaling also occurs with opioid receptors. Previous work from our laboratory showed that chronic morphine, but not DAMGO, up-regulates the expression of Galpha12 and that both morphine and DAMGO decreased(More)
TASK-1 is a two-pore domain potassium channel that is important to modulating cell excitability, most notably in the context of neuronal pathways. In order to leverage TASK-1 for therapeutic benefit, its physiological role needs better characterization; however, designing selective inhibitors that avoid the closely related TASK-3 channel has been(More)
To determine whether dopamine metabolism is abnormal in HIV infected patients and whether dopamine metabolism abnormalities are related to specific neuropsychologic characteristics in HIV-infected patients, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of homovanilic acid (HVA), the primary dopamine metabolite, in 10 HIV-infected patients and compared it to(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate if measuring ground reaction force after a sideways push at the hips gives a measure of standing balance in stroke subjects. METHODS Fifteen control subjects and 13 right hemiparetic subjects who were able to stand independently stood with their feet on a single forceplate. Horizontal sideways pushes of 3% body weight were(More)
The ureases produced by a large number of strains of different Proteus species, some of which were known to have a special affinity for the urinary tract, were examined by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Each Proteus strain gave a pattern of urease isoenzymes that was characteristic and unique to its species although strains of P. Mirabilis and P.(More)