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Genomic evolution has been profoundly influenced by DNA transposition, a process whereby defined DNA segments move freely about the genome. Transposition is mediated by transposases, and similar events are catalyzed by retroviral integrases such as human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) integrase. Understanding how these proteins interact with DNA is(More)
Effects of stress on driving performance can depend on the nature of driver's stress reactions and on the traffic environment. In an experimental study, we assessed multiple dimensions of vulnerability to driver stress by a questionnaire that was validated in previous field studies and related those dimensions to performance on a driving simulator. Results(More)
Transposon Tn5 employs a unique means of self-regulation by expressing a truncated version of the transposase enzyme that acts as an inhibitor. The inhibitor protein differs from the full-length transposase only by the absence of the first 55 N-terminal amino acid residues. It contains the catalytic active site of transposase and a C-terminal domain(More)
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which Btk mediates inflammation are poorly understood. Here we describe the discovery of CGI1746, a small-molecule Btk inhibitor chemotype with a new binding mode that stabilizes an inactive nonphosphorylated enzyme conformation.(More)
Type IB topoisomerases are essential enzymes that are responsible for relaxing superhelical tension in DNA by forming a transient covalent nick in one strand of the DNA duplex. Topoisomerase I is a target for anti-cancer drugs such as camptothecin, and these drugs also target the topoisomerases I in pathogenic trypanosomes including Leishmania species and(More)
Fructose, sorbitol and D-glyceraldehyde stimulate the rate of glucose phosphorylation in isolated hepatocytes. This effect is mediated by fructose 1-phosphate, which releases the inhibition exerted by a regulatory protein on liver glucokinase. In the presence of fructose 6-phosphate, the regulatory protein binds to, and inhibits, liver glucokinase. Fructose(More)
We present a revised estimate of Earth's surface heat flux that is based upon a heat flow data-set with 38 347 measurements, which is 55% more than used in previous estimates. Our methodology, like others, accounts for hy-drothermal circulation in young oceanic crust by utilising a half-space cooling approximation. For the rest of Earth's surface, we(More)
2014. Interaction of subducted slabs with the mantle transition-zone: A regime diagram from 2-D thermomechanical models with a mobile trench and an overriding plate. Please note: Changes made as a result of publishing processes such as copy-editing, formatting and page numbers may not be reflected in this version. For the definitive version of this(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1, 2, 3, and 9 was examined in biopsy specimens removed from adult and pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to determine if the expression of these enzymes was altered between areas of actively inflamed vs. noninvolved mucosa in the same(More)
Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (Tdp1) is a DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a phosphodiester bond between a tyrosine residue and a DNA 3'-phosphate. The only known example of such a linkage in eukaryotic cells occurs normally as a transient link between a type IB topoisomerase and DNA. Thus human Tdp1 is thought to be responsible for(More)