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We developed the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES), an instrument to measure fear of falling, based on the operational definition of this fear as "low perceived self-efficacy at avoiding falls during essential, nonhazardous activities of daily living." The reliability and validity of the FES were assessed in two samples of community-living elderly persons. The FES(More)
Peptide reagents with high affinity or specificity for their target protein interaction partner are of utility for many important applications. Optimization of peptide binding by screening large libraries is a proven and powerful approach. Libraries designed to be enriched in peptide sequences that are predicted to have desired affinity or specificity(More)
We document the extent of measurement errors in the basic data set on police used in the literature on the effect of police on crime. Analyzing medium to large U.S. cities over 1960-2010, we obtain measurement error corrected estimates of the police elasticity. The magnitudes of our estimates are similar to those obtained in the quasi-experimental(More)
Chronic peripheral nerve pain is a common problem that can arise from numerous causes, for which neurolysis is a therapeutic option. It is postulated that cryotherapy will have less adverse events than other methods of nerve ablation. A retrospective case series review was performed in patients who had undergone sonographically guided cryoneurolysis for(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a chromosome 15 genetic disorder, often have a significant preoccupation with food and problem behaviour related to food seeking is often prevalent. METHODS In the present study, we compared how individuals with PWS responded on a survey regarding the acceptability of food in various locations that(More)
Nearly all felony convictions—about 95 percent—follow guilty pleas, suggesting that plea offers are very attractive to defendants compared to trials. Some scholars argue that plea bargains are too attractive and should be curtailed because they facilitate the wrongful conviction of innocents. Others contend that plea bargains only benefit innocent(More)
Thousands of American cities and towns are responding to social problems like bullying, drug abuse, and criminality by passing ordinances that hold individuals responsible for the wrongful acts of their family members and friends. Parental liability ordinances impose sanctions on parents when their children engage in bullying or other targeted behaviors;(More)