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Patients are exposed to X rays when undergoing medical examinations in diagnostic radiology. Exposure data acquired and assessed in Germany for the year 1997 resulted in a mean annual effective dose of 2 +/- 0.5 mSv per head of the population, thereby reaching or exceeding the average level of environmental radiation in many cases. The underlying frequency(More)
This paper uses the task of microcalcification detection as a benchmark problem to assess the potential for dose reduction in x-ray mammography. We present the results of a newly developed algorithm for detection of microcalcifications as a case study for a typical commercial film-screen system (Kodak Min-R 2000/2190). The first part of the paper deals with(More)
The induction of chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with X rays generated at a tube voltage of 29 kV was examined to assess the maximum low-dose RBE (RBE(M)) relative to higher-energy X rays or 60Co gamma rays. Since blood was taken from the same male donor whose blood had been used for previous irradiation experiments using(More)
OBJECTIVE Little is known about the long-term effects of exposure to diagnostic ionizing radiation in childhood. Current estimates are made with models derived mainly from studies of atomic bomb survivors, a population that differs from today's patients in many respects. MATERIALS AND METHODS We analyzed the cancer incidence among children who underwent(More)
The use of ionising radiation in medicine is the single largest man-made source of population exposure. Individual and collective doses to patients arising from the medical use of ionising radiations continue to rise significantly year on year. This is due to the increasing use of medical imaging procedures in modern healthcare systems as well as the(More)
Schmid et al. recently reported on the maximum low-dose RBE for mammography X rays (29 kV) for the induction of dicentrics in human lymphocytes. To obtain additional information on the RBE for this radiation quality, experiments with monochromatized synchrotron radiation were performed. Monochromatic 17.4 keV X rays were chosen for comparison with the(More)
Voxel phantoms are human models based on computed tomographic or magnetic resonance images obtained from high-resolution scans of a single individual. They consist of a huge number of volume elements (voxels) and are at the moment the most precise representation of the human anatomy. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the GSF voxel phantoms, with(More)
Backscatter factors were determined for x-ray beams relevant to diagnostic radiology using Monte Carlo methods. The phantom size considered most suitable for calibration of dosimeters is a cuboid of 30 x 30 cm2 front surface and 15 cm depth. This phantom size also provides a good approximation to adult patients. Three different media were studied: water,(More)
We examined the induction of dicentric chromosomes in human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with nearly monoenergetic neutrons at energies in the range of 36 keV-15.0 MeV. For the assessment of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) both 220 kV x-rays and (60)Co gamma-rays were used as reference radiations. To avoid potential confounding factors that(More)
The induction of dicentric chromosomes in human lymphocytes from one individual irradiated in vitro with monoenergetic neutrons at 565 keV was examined to provide additional data for an improved evaluation of neutrons with respect to radiation risk in radioprotection. The resulting linear dose-response relationship obtained (0.813 +/- 0.052 dicentrics per(More)