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This paper gives a detailed account of the content analysis method developed at Queen's University Belfast to measure critical thinking during group learning, as used in our controlled comparisons between learning in face-to-face and computer conference seminars. From Garrison's 5 stages of critical thinking, and Henri's cognitive skills needed in CMC, we(More)
There were 9 submissions. Each submission was reviewed by at least 2, and on the average 2.7, program committee members. The committee decided to accept 8 papers. We would like to thank our peer reviewers for carefully reviewing the submissions and giving constructive feedback. This proceedings volume has been generated with EasyChair, which made this task(More)
Little is known about the trends in health care spending for the 156 million Americans who are younger than age sixty-five and enrolled in employer-sponsored health insurance. Using a new source of health insurance claims data, we estimated per capita spending, utilization, and prices for this population between 2007 and 2011. During this period per capita(More)
A major concern in recent political discourse is that government has become both isolated from and unresponsive to its citizens. Democracy, by definition, demands a two-way flow of communication between government and civil society. ICTs have the potential to facilitate such improved flows of communication — hence, e-democracy and e-consultation. This paper(More)
Using a national multipayer commercial claims database containing allowed amounts, we examined variations in the prices for 242 common medical services in forty-one states and the District of Columbia. Ratios of average state prices to national prices ranged from a low of 0.79 in Florida to a high of 2.64 in Alaska. Two- to threefold variations in prices(More)
OBJECTIVES Billions of dollars have been spent on the goal of making healthcare data available to clinicians and researchers in the hopes of improving healthcare and lowering costs. However, the problems of data governance, distribution, and accessibility remain challenges for the healthcare system to overcome. STUDY DESIGN In this study, we discuss some(More)