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Dynamic, fine-wire, intramuscular electromyography (EMG) was performed on 12 different shoulder muscles in 13 normal male subjects as they pitched a baseball. Seven were major league baseball pitchers and six were amateur pitchers. The act of pitching a fast ball was filmed at 450 frames per second with the EMG signals recorded synchronously. The(More)
Twenty patients with old ruptures of the PCL were analyzed. Ten patients were untreated, and ten patients had reconstruction of the PCL with the medial head of the gastrocnemius. The patients' gait was analyzed using high speed photography, footswitches, electromyography, and force plate. Patients were studied while walking, running, and stair-climbing. A(More)
Shoulder injuries in tennis players are common because of the repetitive, high-magnitude forces generated around the shoulder during the various tennis strokes. An understanding of the complex sequences of muscle activity in this area may help reduce injury, enhance performance, and assist the rapid rehabilitation of the injured athlete. The supraspinatus,(More)
A study of bilateral shoulder muscle activity during the golf swing was undertaken using electromyography and high-speed photography. Understanding of the muscle firing patterns could lead to injury prevention and development of appropriate training and conditioning regimens. The swings of seven adult male right-handed professional golfers without shoulder(More)
This is the second report in a series of projects dealing with electromyographic (EMG) analysis of the upper extremity during throwing. Better understanding of the muscle activation patterns could lead to more effective preseason conditioning regimens and rehabilitation programs. Indwelling wire electrodes recorded the output from the biceps, long and(More)
Five male subjects' throwing and pitching motions were analyzed by dynamic electromyography and high speed photography. Electrodes inserted into the deltoid and rotator cuff muscles attempted to define muscle activation patterns during the throwing and pitching cycle. The wind-up or preparation (Stage I) had no consistent pattern. Cocking (Stage II) had a(More)
Fine wire EMG of the shoulder was performed on 11 swimmers; 5 performed during dry land studies and 7 during aquatic studies. One individual underwent both studies. A cinematographic analysis was synchronized with the EMG data to determine what muscles were firing at each phase of the swim stroke. Eight muscles were studied: biceps, subscapularis,(More)
Elbow injuries are common in baseball pitchers. Curve balls are thought to increase this risk, particularly if the athlete begins throwing this pitch at an early age. The purpose of this paper is to identify forearm muscle firing patterns during the pitching cycle in an effort to understand this etiology. Dynamic EMG was performed on eight collegiate(More)
This article reviews the results of studies using electromyographic recordings to determine muscle function during athletic activities. Electromyographic recordings were synchronized with high-speed film to provide information on shoulder muscle firing patterns during baseball pitching, swimming, tennis, and golf. The information obtained about the(More)
Kernicterus at autopsy, traditionally associated with hyperbilirubinemia, is now often observed in the absence of markedly elevated levels of serum bilirubin. Attempts to document clinically predictive risk factors for kernicterus have been largely unsuccessful in the current population of sick neonates. In a study of 32 pairs of newborns with and without(More)