D R Hirshfeld

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"Behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar" is a temperamental construct reflecting the tendency to be shy, timid, and constrained in novel situations. Previous work has suggested that it may be associated with anxiety disorders in children. Psychopathology was assessed in children from a nonclinical sample originally identified as behaviorally inhibited or(More)
OBJECTIVE Previous work suggested that children of parents with panic disorder and agoraphobia were likely to be classified as behaviorally inhibited and that behaviorally inhibited children were likely to develop anxiety disorders. Although these findings suggested that "behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar" may be associated with risk for anxiety(More)
Behavioral inhibition is a laboratory-based temperamental category by the tendency to constrict behavior in unfamiliar situations and assumed to reflect low thresholds of limbic arousal. We previously found behavioral inhibition prevalent in the offspring of parents with panic disorder and agoraphobia. In this report, we examined the psychiatric correlates(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between behavioral inhibition and child psychopathology and measures of family adversity indexed through "expressed emotion." METHOD Maternal expressed emotion was assessed via Five-Minute-Speech-Sample in two samples of children evaluated for prevalence of DSM-III disorders and assessed via laboratory observations(More)
Human beings are by nature social animals, but for some, social scrutiny is a source of extreme anguish. Those with social phobia, for example, suffer excessive and often disabling concern about potential and real social-evaluative threat. As new and effective therapies for this condition are pursued, there is a simultaneous movement to extend the(More)
Childhood antecedents of anxiety disorders in adulthood remain poorly understood. We have, therefore, examined from longitudinal and familial perspectives the relationship between behavioral inhibition in children and anxiety disorders. We review a series of studies describing the association between behavioral inhibition and anxiety disorders in two(More)
Behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar, identifiable in early childhood and reflecting the tendency to exhibit withdrawal and excessive autonomic arousal to challenge or novelty, has been found to be prevalent in young offspring of parents with panic disorder and agoraphobia and associated with risk for anxiety disorders in these children. Using family(More)
BACKGROUND Increasingly, the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality is being used to assess personality characteristics of patients with Axis I disorders. Recent study indicates that patients with the seasonal subtype of major depression (SAD) may differ meaningfully from other depressed patients. In the present study, we further examined this finding, with(More)
To investigate the role of "behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar" as an early temperamental characteristic of children at risk for adult panic disorder and agoraphobia (PDAG), we compared children of parents with PDAG with those from psychiatric comparison groups. Fifty-six children aged 2 to 7 years, matched for age, socioeconomic status, ethnic(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the role of maternal psychopathology in influencing "expressed emotion" (EE) directed toward children with behavioral inhibition (BI) or psychiatric disorders. METHOD Maternal EE was assessed via Five-Minute-Speech-Sample in two samples of children previously evaluated for child and maternal lifetime prevalence of DSM-III disorders(More)