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Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus associated with periodic outbreaks, mostly on the African continent, of febrile disease accompanied by abortion in livestock, and a severe, fatal haemorrhagic syndrome in humans. However, the maintenance of the virus during the inter-epidemic period (IEP) when there is low or no disease activity detected in(More)
Legionnaires' disease (LD) is caused by Legionella species, most of which live in water. The Mid-Atlantic region experienced a sharp rise in LD in 2003 coinciding with a period of record-breaking rainfall. To investigate a possible relationship, we analysed the association between monthly legionellosis incidence and monthly rainfall totals from January 1990(More)
In February 1992, an outbreak of cholera occurred among persons who had flown on a commercial airline flight from South America to Los Angeles. This study was conducted to determine the magnitude and the cause of the outbreak. Passengers were interviewed and laboratory specimens were collected to determine the magnitude of the outbreak. A case-control study(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess cholera recognition and treatment by US health care workers in the largest cholera outbreak in the United States this century. DESIGN We reviewed the medical records of passengers from a flight on which a cholera outbreak occurred. To determine the availability of oral rehydration solutions, we surveyed treatment facilities and(More)
Influenza causes severe illness and deaths, and global surveillance systems use different clinical case definitions to identify patients for diagnostic testing. We used data collected during January 2007-July 2010 at hospital-based influenza surveillance sites in western Kenya to calculate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative(More)
OBJECTIVE We tested whether soap presence in the home or a designated handwashing station was associated with diarrhoea and respiratory illness in Kenya. METHODS In April 2009, we observed presence of a handwashing station and soap in households participating in a longitudinal health surveillance system in rural Kenya. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory(More)
In some influenza surveillance systems, timely transport to laboratories for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing is challenging.Guidelines suggest that samples can be stored at 4°Cfor up to 96 hours but the effect of longer storage times has not been systematically evaluated. We collected nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal(More)
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