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In the present work, the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were examined while recording intracellularly from color-opponent bipolar cells in the isolated, superfused carp retina. Bath-applied GABA differentially suppressed light responses of R/G cells, which depolarized and hyperpolarized, respectively, in response to red and green flashes, and G/R(More)
PURPOSE Hemi gap junction (HGJ) channels, precursors of gap junctional channels, are functionally expressed in retinal horizontal cells where they may play roles in osmoeregulation and ephaptic regulation of synaptic feedback to photoreceptors. In this study we examined mechanisms of gating of these channels by transmembrane voltage, Ca2+ and retinoic acid(More)
This study examines the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the ON and OFF pathways in isolated, superfused carp retina. In most (76%) of amacrine cells bath-applied GABA preferentially suppressed the OFF response. The effect of GABA was blocked by bicuculline. Baclofen did not cause a similar effect. Furthermore, GABA produced a substantial(More)
Retinoic acid (RA), a signaling molecule derived from vitamin A, controls growth and differentiation of a variety of cell types through regulation of gene transcription. In the vertebrate retina, RA also regulates gap junction-mediated physiological coupling of retinal neurons through a nontranscriptional mechanism. Here we report that RA rapidly and(More)
BACKGROUND There is substantial evidence for a significant genetic component to the risk for alcoholism. However, susceptibility loci or genes for alcohol dependence remain largely unknown. To identify susceptibility loci for alcohol dependence, we selected 329 extended families from the Framingham Heart Study population in which at least one family member(More)
Electrical coupling between H2 horizontal cell pairs isolated from the hybrid bass retina was studied using dual whole-cell, voltage-clamp technique. Voltage-dependent inactivation of junctional currents in response to steps in transjunctional voltage (Vj) over a range of +/-100 mV was characterized for 89 cell pairs. Approximately one-quarter of the pairs(More)
A refined electrical cable model is formulated to investigate the role of a discrete gap junction in the intracellular transmission of electrical signals in an electrically coupled system of osteocytes and osteoblasts in an osteon. The model also examines the influence of the ratio q between the membrane's electrical time constant and the characteristic(More)
In 188 bulbs from five populations of Lycoris chinensis from Anhui province, China, several chromosomal variations have been discovered. Although their frequencies are low, some rearranged chromosomes which are aberrant have been found. The aberrants are: (1) small metacentrics (m′); (2) submetacentrics (sm); (3) subtelocentrics (st); (4) acrocentrics (t);(More)