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This review represents an update of the nomenclature system for the UDP glucuronosyltransferase gene superfamily, which is based on divergent evolution. Since the previous review in 1991, sequences of many related UDP glycosyltransferases from lower organisms have appeared in the database, which expand our database considerably. At latest count, in animals,(More)
Several novel UDP glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes, mainly UDP glucuronosyltransferases, have been identified in the human, mouse and rat genomes and in other mammalian species. This review provides an update of the UGT nomenclature to include these new genes and prevent the confusion that arises when the same gene is given different names. The new genes are(More)
OBJECTIVES Completion of both the mouse and human genome sequences in the private and public sectors has prompted comparison between the two species at multiple levels. This review summarizes the cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene superfamily. For the first time, we have the ability to compare complete sets of CYP genes from two mammals. Use of the mouse as a model(More)
The chronology and history of characterizing the aromatic hydrocarbon [Ah] battery is reviewed. This battery represents the Ah receptor (AHR)-mediated control of at least six, and probably many more, dioxin-inducible genes; two cytochrome P450 genes-P450 1A1 and 1A2 (Cypla1, Cypla2-and four non-P450 genes, have experimentally been documented to be members(More)
We provide here a list of 481 P450 genes and 22 pseudogenes, plus all accession numbers that have been reported as of October 18, 1995. These genes have been described in 85 eukaryote (including vertebrates, invertebrates, fungi, and plants) and 20 prokaryote species. Of 74 gene families so far described, 14 families exist in all mammals examined to date.(More)
The mammalian CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 genes (encoding cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1, respectively) are regulated by the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). The CYP1 enzymes are responsible for both metabolically activating and detoxifying numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic amines present in combustion products. Many(More)
The metabolic activation of two known olfactory mucosal (OM) toxicants, acetaminophen (AP) and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN), was examined with mouse liver and OM microsomes and purified, heterologously expressed mouse CYP2A5 and CYP2G1. In reconstituted systems, both isoforms were active in metabolizing DCBN and AP to metabolites that formed protein(More)
The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily comprises 57 genes. These genes code for enzymes that can have a role in: metabolism of drugs, foreign chemicals, arachidonic acid and eicosanoids; cholesterol metabolism and bile-acid biosynthesis; steroid synthesis and metabolism; vitamin D(3) synthesis and metabolism; retinoic acid hydroxylation; and those of(More)
As currently being performed with an increasing number of superfamilies, a standardized gene nomenclature system is proposed here, based on divergent evolution, using multiple alignment analysis of all 86 eukaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) amino-acid sequences known at this time. The ALDHs represent a superfamily of NAD(P)(+)-dependent enzymes having(More)
Some cytochrome P450 (CYP) heme-thiolate enzymes participate in the detoxication and, paradoxically, the formation of reactive intermediates of thousands of chemicals that can damage DNA, as well as lipids and proteins. CYP expression can also affect the production of molecules derived from arachidonic acid, and alters various downstream signal-transduction(More)