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The decline in the high incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, parkinsonism, and Alzheimer-type dementia among the Chamorro population of the western Pacific islands of Guam and Rota, coupled with the absence of demonstrable viral and hereditable factors in this disease, suggests the gradual disappearance of an environmental factor selectively(More)
beta-N-Oxalylamino-L-alanine (BOAA) and beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) are chemically related excitant amino acids isolated from the seed of Lathyrus sativus (BOAA) and Cycas circinalis (BMAA), consumption of which has been linked to lathyrism (an upper motor neuron disorder) and Guam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), respectively. Both diseases are(More)
Lathyrism, a form of motoneuron disease induced by excessive consumption of th legume Lathyrus sativus (chickling pea), presents as signs of pyramidal tract involvement. Primate feeding studies show that beta-N-oxalylamino-L-alanine (BOAA), a potent neuroexcitatory aminoacid in the chickling pea, induces corticospinal dysfunction similar to that seen in(More)
A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method is described for determining subpicomole concentrations of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in plant and animal tissue. BMAA and other amino acids were reacted with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) for 10 min under alkaline conditions to form highly fluorescent and stable derivatives. All amino(More)
beta-N-Oxalylamino-L-alanine (L-BOAA) is a non-protein excitatory amino acid present in the seed of Lathyrus sativus L. This excitotoxin has been characterized as the causative agent of human neurolathyrism, an upper motor neuron disease producing corticospinal dysfunction from excessive consumption of the lathyrus pea. Previous behavioral, tissue-culture,(More)
BACKGROUND The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology represents a major step towards standardization, reproducibility, improved clinical significance, and greater predictive value of thyroid fine needle aspirates (FNAs). AIMS To elucidate the utility of the Bethesda system in reporting thyroid FNAs. MATERIALS AND METHODS We retrospectively(More)
The twenty-first century vision for toxicology involves a transition away from high-dose animal studies to in vitro and computational models (NRC in Toxicity testing in the 21st century: a vision and a strategy, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2007). This transition requires mapping pathways of toxicity by understanding how in vitro systems(More)